Presentation on theme: "Ecological Organization and Matter Cycles"— Presentation transcript:
1 Ecological Organization and Matter Cycles Ms. HenriksenBiology
2 What is Ecology?The scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment, or surroundings.Study how living things interact with other living things and with non-living things.
3 Abiotic factors = nonliving Biotic factors = living non-living components in the environment…lightwaterwindnutrients in soilheatsolar radiationatmosphere, etc.Living organisms…PlantsAnimalsmicroorganisms in soil, etc.
5 Levels of Organization Species - group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspringPopulation- group of individuals of the same species that live in the same areaCommunity – group of different populations that live together in a defined areaEcosystem - collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving environmentBiome - group of ecosystems that have the same climate and dominant communitiesBiosphere - part of Earth in which life exists including land, water, and air or atmosphere
6 Cycles of Matter Matter: anything that has weight and takes up space. Matter cannot be used up.It is transformed.Matter is recycled within and between ecosystems.Example: you eat food, it is assembled into living tissue or passed out as waste.
7 Nutrient CyclesNutrients: all the chemical substances that an organism needs to survive.“Building Blocks”To build tissues2. To carry out life’sessential functions
8 You are floating in the air as a molecule of carbon dioxide. You are soon absorbed by a leaf on a blueberry bush during photosynthesis.You then become part of a carbohydrate molecule and are used to make fruit.You are now in a blueberry that is eaten by a moose.Within a few hours, you are passed out of the moose’s body.A dung beetle comes along and swallows you.You then become part of the body tissue of a mouse, which eats the beetle.Next, you enter the body of an owl, when it eats the mouse.Finally, you are released back into the atmosphere when the owl exhales.
9 Diagram of the carbon cycle pg How does carbon move to the air?How is carbon cycled back to the soil?How is carbon stored in water?
10 The Carbon Cycle Carbon: an important part of living tissue Animal skeletons are made of calcium carbonateCarbon dioxide is used for respiration (breathing) and photosynthesisDecomposition releases carbon into the soil where it is changed into coal and petroleum
11 Diagram of the nitrogen cycle What organisms are most important for fixing nitrogen into a form that other can use?Where do we find these organisms
12 The Nitrogen CycleAll living organisms need nitrogen to make amino acids, which build proteins78% of the atmosphere is made of nitrogen gasWastes and dead organic matter contain ammonia, nitrate and nitrite ionsNitrate is in plant fertilizers
13 The Nitrogen CycleNitrogen fixation: bacteria in soil and on the roots of plants (legumes) convert nitrogen gas into ammonia.Producers cannot use nitrogen gas, but can use ammonia.Denitrification: bacteria in soil convert nitrates into nitrogen gas and it enters the atmosphere again.
14 Diagram the phosphorous cycle Is phosphorus ever cycled into the atmosphere?
15 The Phosphorous CycleLiving organisms need phosphorous to make DNA or RNA (carry genetic info)Phosphorous is not common in the biosphere and never enters the atmosphere.Found in rock, soil minerals and ocean sediments.
16 Nutrient LimitationPrimary productivity: how fast producers create organic matter.A Limiting Nutrient: a nutrient that is scarce or cycles slowly, limiting primary productivity.
17 Too much of a good thing… Fertilizers are used to speed up plant growth.Too much of a nutrient will cause an algal bloomAlgal bloom: algae grows quickly, without enough consumers to eat it up.Algae takes over the surface of the water.(p.80, figure 3-16)
18 Questions… Why do living organisms need nutrients? ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
19 Essential QuestionsWhat different levels of organization do ecologists study?How to biotic and abiotic components of an ecosystem interact?
20 Essential QuestionsHow does matter move among the living and nonliving parts of an ecosystem?How is the phosphorus cycle different than the other cycles?Which cycle relies heavily on bacteria?Which cycle do humans impact most heavily?How are nutrients important in living systems?