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10th Edition, © 2011, Cengage Learning

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1 10th Edition, © 2011, Cengage Learning
Chapter 3 Sentences: Elements, Patterns, Types, Faults 10th Edition, © 2011, Cengage Learning

2 A sentence is a group of words that includes a subject and a predicate and expresses a complete thought. SUBJECT A simple subject is a noun or a pronoun that tells who or what the sentence is about. A complete subject includes all modifiers. Chapter 3, Guffey-Seefer, Business English, 10e, Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning, All Rights Reserved

3 PREDICATE COMPLETENESS
A simple predicate is a verb or verb phrase that tells or asks what the subject is doing or what is being done to the subject. A complete predicate includes modifiers, objects, and complements. COMPLETENESS In addition to having subjects and predicates, sentences must be complete. Chapter 3, Guffey-Seefer, Business English, 10e, Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning, All Rights Reserved

4 A set of guidelines was developed.
(This sentence has a subject and a predicate and is complete.) To be used in ordering computer supplies. (This fragment, broken off from another sentence, is incomplete and doesn’t make sense.) Chapter 3, Guffey-Seefer, Business English, 10e, Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning, All Rights Reserved

5 Locating Subjects To locate a sentence subject, ask Who or what is being discussed? The manager hires all new employees. Who is being discussed? Training programs educate new employees. What is being discussed? Chapter 3, Guffey-Seefer, Business English, 10e, Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning, All Rights Reserved

6 Ignore prepositional phrases.
The manager of the program for all new hires in our division called a meeting. Who is being discussed? Sentences may have multiple subjects. The manager, sales director, and vice president gave their approval. Chapter 3, Guffey-Seefer, Business English, 10e, Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning, All Rights Reserved

7 Reword inverted sentences to locate the subject.
Sitting in the front row is Rachel. Reword: Rachel is sitting in the front row. Did any other candidates qualify? Reword: Other candidates qualify. Chapter 3, Guffey-Seefer, Business English, 10e, Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning, All Rights Reserved

8 Phrases and Clauses Complete Sentences Clauses Phrases A phrase is a group of related words WITHOUT a subject and a verb. Kim came to the interview in the morning. She had been told to arrive at 10 a.m. Chapter 3, Guffey-Seefer, Business English, 10e, Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning, All Rights Reserved

9 Phrases and Clauses When she arrived, she introduced herself.
Complete Sentences Clauses Phrases A clause is a group of related words WITH a subject and a verb. Independent clauses can stand alone. Dependent clauses rely on independent clauses for their meaning. When she arrived, she introduced herself. If she was afraid, she didn’t show it. Chapter 3, Guffey-Seefer, Business English, 10e, Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning, All Rights Reserved

10 Four Sentence Varieties
Simple sentences have one independent clause―that is, one clause that can stand alone. Compound sentences have two or more independent clauses.  Each interviewee sent a résumé. Kim spent many hours preparing her résumé, and she practiced her answers to typical interview questions. Chapter 3, Guffey-Seefer, Business English, 10e, Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning, All Rights Reserved

11 Four Sentence Varieties
Complex sentences have one independent clause and one dependent clause. When Kim arrived for the interview, she introduced herself to the receptionist. Compound-complex sentences have two or more independent clauses and one dependent clause. Because she had prepared well, Kim felt confident; she answered all questions fully and enthusiastically. Chapter 3, Guffey-Seefer, Business English, 10e, Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning, All Rights Reserved

12 Four Sentence Patterns
Pattern No. 1: Subject—Verb. The most basic sentence pattern is one in which the subject is followed by its verb. Courtney called. She is working. All employees work. Chapter 3, Guffey-Seefer, Business English, 10e, Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning, All Rights Reserved

13 Four Sentence Patterns
Pattern No. 2: Subject—Action Verb—Object. In this pattern the subject is followed by an action verb and its direct object. The object usually answers the questions What? and Whom? ComStar created a Web site. A law office hired her. Chapter 3, Guffey-Seefer, Business English, 10e, Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning, All Rights Reserved

14 Four Sentence Patterns
Pattern No. 3: Subject—Linking Verb— Complement. In this pattern the subject is followed by a linking verb and its complement. Complement: Noun, pronoun, or adjective that renames or describes the subject. Completes the meaning of the subject. Chapter 3, Guffey-Seefer, Business English, 10e, Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning, All Rights Reserved

15 Complement Examples Our receptionist is Patricia. (Noun complement)
The winner of the award is he. (Pronoun complement) Their Web site is attractive. (Adjective complement) Chapter 3, Guffey-Seefer, Business English, 10e, Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning, All Rights Reserved

16 Four Sentence Patterns
Pattern No. 4: Inverted Order. Verbs may occasionally precede subjects. Chairing the committee is Renee Cornell. Have you read your ? Here are the materials. Chapter 3, Guffey-Seefer, Business English, 10e, Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning, All Rights Reserved

17 Punctuating Four Sentence Types
Statements make assertions and end with periods. is an essential communication channel. Questions are concluded by question marks. Can you avoid while on vacation? Chapter 3, Guffey-Seefer, Business English, 10e, Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning, All Rights Reserved

18 Punctuating Four Sentence Types
Commands end with periods or, occasionally, with exclamation points. Check your at least twice a day. (The subject is understood to be you.) Exclamations show surprise, disbelief, or strong feelings. Oh, no! I made a huge mistake! Chapter 3, Guffey-Seefer, Business English, 10e, Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning, All Rights Reserved

19 Sentence Faults Fragments
A fragment is an incomplete sentence and should not be punctuated as if it were complete. It may be broken off from a preceding or following sentence. Chapter 3, Guffey-Seefer, Business English, 10e, Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning, All Rights Reserved

20 Comma Splice When two complete sentences are incorrectly joined with a comma, a comma splice results. Run-on Sentence When two complete thoughts are run together, a run-on (fused) sentence results. Chapter 3, Guffey-Seefer, Business English, 10e, Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning, All Rights Reserved

21 Because we have all come to depend on e-mail, we must find a solution.
FRAGMENT Because we have all come to depend on . That’s why we must find a solution. REMEDY Because we have all come to depend on , we must find a solution. Chapter 3, Guffey-Seefer, Business English, 10e, Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning, All Rights Reserved

22 COMMA SPLICE Instant messaging is popular, it’s even used in offices. REMEDIES Instant messaging is popular. It’s even used in offices. Instant messaging is popular; it’s even used in offices. Instant messaging is popular, and it’s even used in offices. Chapter 3, Guffey-Seefer, Business English, 10e, Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning, All Rights Reserved

23 RUN-ON Instant messaging was once used by teenagers now it’s also used by business professionals. REMEDIES Instant messaging was once used by teenagers; now it’s also used by business professionals. Instant messaging was once used by teenagers. Now it’s also used by business professionals. Instant messaging was once used by teenagers, but now it’s also used by business professionals. Chapter 3, Guffey-Seefer, Business English, 10e, Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning, All Rights Reserved


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