2 Specific Angles GREEN Red 112 degrees 112 degrees GIVE WAY TO VESSELS IN THIS ZONERIGHT OF WAY OVER VESSELS IN THIS ZONEWHITE135 degreesVESSELS IN THIS ZONE ARE OVERTAKING AND MUST KEEP CLEAR
3 Extent of Required Knowledge Rule 5Rule 7Rule 8Rule 9Rules 12 – 19Level National Powerboat Certificate- Lookout- Risk of collision- Action to avoid a collision- Narrow Channels- Sailing Vessels, overtaking, etc
4 Rule 5 – Keeping a Lookout It is the skipper's responsibility to ensure a proper look-out is maintained at all timesTo keep a lookout by all available means appropriate in the circumstances.In bad weather most people will not keep an adequate look-out in to heavy spray or rain – be aware.There should also be enough crew to maintain a proper look-out at all times. An impossible feat for the long distance single hander!In reduced visibility place a crew member in the bow.
5 Rule 7 – Avoiding a collision Decide if there is a risk of collision.Assume that there is a risk until it is proven otherwise.Take a bearing on the other vessel as soon as it is sighted, then repeat this at 2-3 minute intervals.In confined waters a quick check is to look at the movement of the background in relation to the other vessel:Background moving forward – you pass in frontBackground moving backwards – you pass behindBackground not moving – Collision imminent
6 Rule 8 – Action to avoid a collision Part of avoiding a collision, is to communicate your intentions to the other vessel.This means:Acting in plenty of timeMake it obvious to the other vessel
7 Rule 9 – Narrow ChannelsWhen afloat we drive on the right when in a narrow channel. However, it may not be obvious what is meant by a narrow channel.In any case this rule states that a sailing vessel and a vessel of less than 20m shall not impede a vessel which can only use the channel.This is one of several situations where the general rule of power giving way to sail does not apply.It is also common sense not to anchor in a narrow channel if this would cause a hazard to other traffic.
8 Rule 12 – Sailing VesselsSailing boats priority is based on the tack that the vessels are on. They are always either on port tack or starboard tack.The judgement of which tack a vessel is on is based on the side of the boat that the largest fore and aft sail is carried. We assume that the wind is blowing from the opposite side of the vessel to the largest sail.Port gives way to starboard.Windward vessel gives way to leeward vessel.
9 Rule 13 – OvertakingOvertaking vessels always give way. Of course, if you are in doubt you should assume that you are the overtaking vessel and keep well clear until you are past the other vessel.If you are the overtaking vessel you must keep clear until you are well past, you can not just manoeuvre to a place where you become the stand on vessel and expect the other craft to avoid you.This Rule also means that a vessel on starboard tack, which is overtaking a vessel on port tack, is the give way vessel. For the same reason a sailing vessel overtaking a power-driven vessel, is also the give way vessel.
10 Rule 14 – Head On Situation Vessels drive on the right side of channels, so it makes sense that if two vessels meet head on they should both turn to starboard.If you do not, you will end up in an ambiguous situation with the other vessel.One thing you will notice about applying these Rules is that if you are positive about your intentions, everyone else follows you.Remember that the only way you can communicate your intentions is to make positive alterations in ample time.
11 Rule 15 – Crossing Situations As power-driven vessels drive on the right, and turn to the right, they also give way to the right when they meet in a crossing situation.At night, if you see a red light you must give way, a green light means you are the stand on vessel.There is a saying which some people find useful: If to starboard, should red appear, it's your duty to keep clear!This rule only applies to power-driven vessels, not sailing vessels (see Rule 12.)
12 Rule 16 – Action by Give Way Vessel This Rule reinforces Rule 8 and reminds us to avoid a close quarters situation in plenty of time.It is worth remembering that if you are the give way vessel, the only way the stand on vessel knows that you intend to avoid them is to perform a manoeuvre that is obvious to them. Think of your actions as your means of communicating with the other vessel!
13 Rule 17 – Action by Stand on Vessel To enable other vessels to determine if a risk of collision exists it is vital that the stand on vessel maintain a steady course and speed.Avoid a collision if we are the stand on vessel and we think that the other vessel has not taken sufficient action to avoid us.Take action to avoid a collision if the other vessel can not avoid us.The rules are written so that you can not hide behind them, and blame the other vessel, if there is a collision the blame falls on both vessels.
14 Rule 18 – Responsibility Between Vessels This Rule sets the priorities for special classes of vessels. Obviously, those with the most manoeuvrability give way to those with less.Responsibilities between vessels.Except where rules 9, 10, and 13 otherwise require:(a) a power-driven vessel underway shall keep out of the way of:a vessel not under command.a vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre.a vessel engaged in fishing.a sailing vessel.(b) A sailing vessel underway shall keep out of the way of:(c) A vessel engaged in fishing when underway shall, so far as possible, keep out of the way of:
15 Rule 19 – Conduct of Vessels in Restricted Visibility Every vessel shall proceed at a safe speed adapted to the prevailing circumstances and conditions of restricted visibility. A power-driven vessel shall have her engines ready for immediate manoeuvre.Every vessel shall have due regard to the prevailing circumstances and conditions of restricted visibility.Except where it has been determined that a risk of collision does not exist, every vessel which hears apparently forwards of her beam the fog signal of another vessel, or which cannot avoid a close-quarters situation with another vessel forwards of her beam, shall reduce her speed to the minimum at which she can be kept on her course. She shall if necessary take all her way off and in any event navigate with extreme caution until danger of collision is over.
16 Answer the following to test your understanding
17 VESSEL ‘A’ GIVES WAY TO VESSELS IN THIS ZONE Who gives way?Give Way VesselAB112 DegreesVESSEL ‘A’ GIVES WAY TO VESSELS IN THIS ZONEStand on VesselA gives way to B
18 Who gives way?ABBOTH TURN TO STARBOARD AND PASS PORT TO PORT
19 Who gives way? A B B gives way to A 112 degrees Deemed overtaking vessel
20 Who gives way? A B Port Tack Vessel! Stand on Vessel! Sailing Boat (vessel A) has right of way. – Power gives way to sail
21 Where does power NOT have right of way? When meeting a sailing vesselWhere other vessels are restricted in their ability to manoeuvreWhere other vessels are towingWhere other vessels are constrained by their draughtWhere it is deemed unsafe to proceed ie have they seen me? Always avoid a collision.
22 What does this flag mean? Diver down ‘A’ flagReduce speed to a crawl, avoid the area if possible. Attain visual contact with the divers coxwain and proceed slowly.
23 Always avoid a collision What is the Golden Rule?Always avoid a collision