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Analogue Electronics II EMT 212/4

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Presentation on theme: "Analogue Electronics II EMT 212/4"— Presentation transcript:

1 Analogue Electronics II EMT 212/4
Chapter 1 Operational Amplifier Semester /2011

2 1.0 Operational Amplifier
1.1 Introduction 1.2 Ideal Op-Amp 1.3 Op-amp Input Modes 1.4 Op-amp Parameters 1.5 Operation Single-mode Differential-mode Common-mode operation 1.6 Op-Amps Basics 1.7 Practical Op Amp Circuits 1.8 Op Amp Datasheet

3 1.1 Introduction Typical IC packages
IC packages placed on circuit board

4 1.1 Introduction Definition
The operational amplifier or op-amp is a circuit of components integrated into one chip. A typical op-amp is powered by two dc voltages and has one inverting(-) input, one non-inverting input (+) and one output. Op-amps are used to model the basic mathematical operations ; addition, subtraction, integration and differentiation in electronic analog computers. Other operations include buffering and amplification of DC and AC signals.

5 1.1 Introduction Two Power Supply (PS) +V : Positive PS
-V : Negative PS One Output Terminal Op-amp schematic symbol Two Input Terminals Inverting input Non-inverting input

6 1.1 Introduction Applications of Op-Amp
To provide voltage amplitude changes (amplitude and polarity) Comparators Oscillators Filters Sensors Instrumentation amplifiers

7 1.1 Introduction Stages of an op-amp OUTPUT STAGE INPUT STAGE

8 1.1 Introduction Typical op-amp packages

9 1.1 Introduction The 741 op-amp Real op-amp : 741
Literally a black box

10 1.2 Ideal Op-Amp Practical Op-Amp Ideal Op-Amp

11 1.2 Ideal Op-Amp Properties Ideal Op-Amp Practical Op-Amp
Infinite input impedance Zero output impedance Infinite open-loop gain Infinite bandwidth Zero noise contribution Zero DC output offset Input impedance 500k-2M Output impedance  Open-loop gain (20k to 200k) Bandwidth limited (a few kHz) Has noise contribution Non-zero DC output offset

12 1.2 Ideal Op-Amp Infinite Input Impedance
Input impedance is measured across the input terminals. It is the Thevenin resistance of the internal connection between the two input terminals. Input impedance is the ratio of input voltage to input current. When Zi is infinite, the input current is zero. The op amp will neither supply current to a circuit nor will it accept current from any external circuit. In real op-amp, the impedance is 500k to 2M

13 1.2 Ideal Op-Amp Zero Output Impedance
Looking back into the output terminal, we see it as a voltage source with an internal resistance. The internal resistance of the op-amp is the output impedance of op-amp This internal resistance is in series with the load, reducing the output voltage available to the load Real op-amps have output impedance in the range of  .

14 1.2 Ideal Op-Amp Infinite Open-Loop Gain
Open-Loop Gain, A is the gain of the op-amp without feedback. In the ideal op-amp, A is infinite In real op-amp, A is 20k to 200k

15 1.2 Ideal Op-Amp Infinite Bandwidth
The ideal op-amp will amplify all signals from DC to the highest AC frequencies In real op-amps, the bandwidth is rather limited This limitation is specified by the Gain-Bandwidth product, which is equal to the frequency where the amplifier gain becomes unity Some op-amps, such as 741 family, have very limited bandwidth, up to a few kHz only

16 1.2 Ideal Op-Amp Zero Noise Contribution
in an ideal op amp, all noise voltages produced are external to the op amp. Thus any noise in the output signal must have been in the input signal as well. the ideal op amp contributes nothing extra to the output noise. In real op-amp, there is noise due to the internal circuitry of the op-amp that contributes to the output noise

17 1.2 Ideal Op-Amp Zero Output Offset
The output offset voltage of any amplifier is the output voltage that exists when it should be zero. The voltage amplifier sees zero input voltage when both inputs are grounded. This connection should produce a zero output voltage. If the output is not zero then there is said to be an output voltage present. In the ideal op amp this offset voltage is zero volts, but in practical op amps the output offset voltage is nonzero (a few miliVolts).

18 1.2 Ideal Op-Amp Both Differential Inputs Stick Together
this means that a voltage applied to one inverting inputs also appears at the other non-inverting inputs. If we apply a voltage to the inverting input and then connect a voltmeter between the non-inverting input and the power supply common, then the voltmeter will read the same potential on non-inverting as on the inverting input.

19 1.3 Op-Amp Input Modes Single-Ended Input Mode
Input signal is connected to ONE input and the other input is grounded. Non- Inverting Mode input signal at +ve terminal  output same polarity as the applied input signal Inverting Mode input signal at –ve terminal  output opposite in phase to the applied input signal

20 1.3 Op-Amp Input Modes Differential Input Mode
TWO out-of-phase signals are applied with the difference of the two amplified is produced at the output.

21 1.3 Op-Amp Input Modes Common Mode Input
Two signals of same phase, frequency, and amplitude are applied to the inputs which results in no output (signals cancel). But, in practical, a small output signal will result. This is called common-mode rejection. This type of mode is used for removal of unwanted noise signals.

22 1.4 Op-Amp Parameters COMMON-MODE REJECTION (CMRR)

23 1.4 Op-Amp Parameters Common-Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR)
The ability of amplifier to reject the common-mode signals (unwanted signals) while amplifying the differential signal (desired signal) Ratio of open-loop gain, Aol to common-mode gain, Acm The open-loop gain is a datasheet value The higher the CMRR, the better, in which the open-loop gain is high and common-mode gain is low. CMRR is usually expressed in dB & decreases with frequency

24 1.4 Op-Amp Parameters Common-Mode Input Voltage Input Offset Voltage
The range of input voltages which, when applied to both inputs, will not cause clipping or other output distortion. Input Offset Voltage Ideally, output of an op-amp is 0 Volt if the input is 0 Volt. Realistically, a small dc voltage will appear at the output when no input voltage is applied. Thus, differential dc voltage is required between the inputs to force the output to zero volts. This is called the Input Offset Voltage, Vos. Range between 2 mV or less.

25 1.4 Op-Amp Parameters Input Bias Current Ideally should be zero
The dc current required by the inputs of the amplifier to properly operate the first stage. Is the average of both input currents

26 1.4 Op-Amp Parameters Input Impedance
Is the total resistance between the inverting and non-inverting inputs. Differential input impedance : total resistance between the inverting and non-inverting inputs Common-mode input impedance: total resistance between each input and ground

27 1.4 Op-Amp Parameters Input Offset Current
Is the difference of input bias currents Input offset current Offset voltage Thus, error

28 1.4 Op-Amp Parameters Output Impedance Ideally should be zero
Is the resistance viewed from the output terminal of the op-amp. In reality, it is non-zero.

29 1.4 Op-Amp Parameters Slew Rate
Is the maximum rate of change of the output voltage in response to a step input voltage.

30 1.4 Op-Amp Parameters Slew Rate
It’s a measure of how fast the output can “follow” the input signal.

31 1.4 Op-Amp Parameters Example Determine the slew rate:

32 1.5 Operation Types of Op-amp Operation Differential Amplifier Circuit
If an input signal is applied to either input with the other input is connected to ground, the operation is referred to as ‘single-ended.’ If two opposite-polarity input signals are applied, the operation is referred to as ‘double-ended.’ If the same input is applied to both inputs, the operation is called ‘common-mode.’

33 1.5 Operation Differential Amplifier Circuit Basic amplifier circuit

34 1.5 Operation Differential Amplifier Circuit DC ANALYSIS
DC bias of differential amplifier circuit DC ANALYSIS

35 1.5 Operation Example : Differential Amplifier Circuits
Calculate the dc voltages and currents

36 1.5 Operation Differential Amplifier Circuit Example Solution

37 1.5 Operation Differential Amplifier Circuit AC ANALYSIS Single-Ended
Connection to calculate : Av1 = Vo1 / Vi1

38 1.5 Operation Differential Amplifier Circuit AC ANALYSIS Single-Ended
B E C AC equivalent of differential amplifier circuit

39 1.5 Operation Differential Amplifier Circuit KVL
AC Analysis Single ended Scan figure & 10.15 Partial circuit for calculating Ib

40 1.5 Operation Differential Amplifier Circuit Example Solution
Calculate the single-ended output voltage Vo1

41 1.5 Operation Differential Amplifier Circuit
AC Analysis Double ended A similar analysis can be used to show that for the condition of signals applied to both inputs, the differential voltage gain magnitude is

42 1.5 Operation Differential Amplifier Circuit AC Analysis - Common-mode
Common-mode connection

43 1.5 Operation Differential Amplifier Circuit AC Analysis - Common-mode

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