2 Speed and Acceleration What is time?A particular moment (EX: 3:30 pm) or an interval of time (EX: the race lasted 30 minutes)Measured in hours, minutes, days yearsScientists measure in secondsMust have a number and a unitTime measurementsHow many seconds are in a minute?How many minutes are in an hour?How many hours are in a day?How many days are in a year?How many year are in a century?
3 What is distance? How far it is from one point to another Motion and PositionPosition –location of an objectA reference point is needed to determine the position of an objectMotion occurs when an object changes its position relative to a reference point. Therefore, movement is compared to a reference pointAre you moving now? Compared to what?A frame of reference is a coordinate system in which the position of the object is measured.
4 DistanceAn important part of describing the motion of an object is to describe how far it has moved which is referred to as distance.Distance is a measure of how far it is from one point to another, how far something has moved.Measured in units of lengthEnglish system = inches, feet and milesMetric system (SI units)= Millimeters, centimeters, meters and kilometers1 m = 100 cm: 1 kilometer = 1000m
5 What SI unit would you use? What unit would you use to measure the distance home?What unit would you use to measure your height?What unit would you use to measure your hand span?What unit would you use to measure the width of your pencil lead?
6 DisplacementDisplacement is the distance and direction of an objects change in position from the starting point.Quick Question: How are distance and displacement different?
7 SpeedSpeed is the distance an object travels per unit of time. A measure of how quickly an object moves from one place to another. It is the rate at which distance is traveled or rate of change in position. Objects that are not moving are said to have a speed of 0 m/s.Any change over time is called rate.Speed is the rate at which distance is traveled or the rate of change in position
8 Calculating SpeedYou need the distance traveled and the time taken to travel that distanceSpeed (S or V) = distance(d)/time(t)Units for SpeedSpeed = Meter per sec (m/s), Miles per hour (mi/hr), inches/secondDistance = meters (m), kilometer (km), miles (mi)Time = seconds (s), hours (hr)
10 Practice Problem: Calculating Speed Formula: Distance traveled divided by the time taken.If you drove 90 miles in 1.5 hours, what is your speed for the trip?
11 Solving for other variables: How far would you drive if you drove for 2 hours at 60mph?
12 Problems1. Nascar driver, Jeff Gordon, has a car that is one of the fastest on the circuit. If it travels 600 miles in 4 hours, what is his cruising speed?v = d/tV = 600 mi/4 hrsV = 150 mi/hr
13 2. The fastest car on Earth, a German-made Thrust SSC, would win every Nascar race in America. If it takes 0.5 hours (30 minutes) to travel 380 miles, what is its speed?v = d/tv = 380 mi/ 0.5 hrv = 760 mi/h (mph)
14 3. The fastest train on Earth, the TGV from France, can travel at faster speeds than trains in the United States. During a speed test, the train traveled 800 miles in 2.5 hours. What is its speed?v = d/tv = 800 mi/ 2.5 hrv = 320 mi/h (mph)
15 4. Spirit of Australia, a hydroplane boat, made speed records by traveling 239 miles in 0.75 hours (45 minutes). What is its record-breaking speed?v = d/tv = 239 mi/ 0.75 hrv = mi/h (mph)
16 5. The fastest plane ever made, the Lockhead SR71, was able to travel 2200 miles per hour. Based on this speed, how far could it travel in: a. 2 hours? b. 3 hours? c. 5 hours?v = d/tv = 2200 mi/ 1 hrv = 2200 mi/h (mph)
17 6. How much time does it take for a bird flying at a speed of 45 miles per hour to travel a distance of 1,800 miles?t = d/vt = 1800 mi /45 mi/hrv = 40 hrs
18 7. A cheetah runs at 60 mph for a distance of 0. 5 miles 7. A cheetah runs at 60 mph for a distance of 0.5 miles. How long does this take? Change answer to seconds.t = d/vt = 0.5 mi/ 60mpht = hr0.008 hr x 60 sec = secs1hr
19 8. A comet is cruising through the solar system at a speed of 50,000 kilometers per hour for 4 hours time. What is the total distance traveled by the comet during this time?d = vtd = 50,000 km/h X 4 hrsd = 200,000 km
20 9. A runner runs 6. 9 mph for 54 minutes 9. A runner runs 6.9 mph for 54 minutes. What distance did the runner travel?d = vtd = 6.9 mph X 54 mind = mph/min (Does this make sense)Must change minutes to hours54 min X 1 hour = 0.9 hr60 mind = 6.9 mph X 0.9 hr = 6.2 miles
21 Types of SpeedConstant speed = speed that is not changing. Usually speed is not constant!Average speed – total distance traveled divided by the total time of travel, average of all speeds over time traveled. Example: Distance to San Antonio, Texas = 1000 miles. Time traveled = 15 hours. What is the average speed?Instantaneous speed – speed at a given point in time
22 GraphsGraphing SpeedDistance - time graph or also called a position - time graph shows the motion of an object over a period of time.Time is plotted on the horizontal axis of the graph and distance traveled is plotted along the vertical axisSlope of a distance vs time graph or a position vs time graph will tell us the speed of an objectSlope = rise (vertical) /run (horizontal)Label the AxisDistance(position) is dependent variableTime is the independent variable
24 Distance vs Time Graph = Speed Shows distance traveled in relation to time traveledShows distance and direction of an object from its starting point. Needs to be expressed with a number and a direction.Line sloping upward – steady speedChange in upward slope = changing speedSteeper = fasterFlat line – no motion Downward slope – returning to start
25 Speed and VelocityWe use the letter “V” to represent speed. The letter “V” stands for velocityVelocity = includes the speed and direction of an objectVelocity can change even though the speed may not EX: Escalator in the mallSpeed – tells you how fast you are goingVelocity – gives a speed along with a direction
26 Acceleration Speed and velocity Acceleration is rate of change in velocity. When the velocity of an object occurs, the object is accelerating.Remember that velocity includes the speed and direction of an object. Therefore acceleration occurs when an object changes its speed, its direction, or BOTH. It is the amount your speed increases compared to how long it took to increaseExamples of acceleration: Speeding up, slowing down and change directionSpeed increases- positive acceleration (acceleration)Speed decreases – negative acceleration (deceleration)Example of changing direction: Fairs wheel, carousel, race car track. Turning a corner.Is acceleration occurring in these situations?
27 Calculating Acceleration Acceleration = Change in speed/change in time OR Acceleration = (final velocity – initial velocity) / timea = Dv/tUnits for AccelerationAcceleration = m/s2 , m/s/s, mi/hr2Velocity = m/s, mi/hrTime = s, hr
29 A negative acceleration means that the object is slowing down. EX: -20cm/sec2 means tha the speed is decreasing – this can also be referred to as decelerationZero Acceleration – traveling at a constant speed in one directionFree Fall is 9.8m/s2 = accelerates at 9.8m/s for every second that it falls. This is the force of gravity pulling down on the object
30 Calculating Positive Acceleration If a jet airliner reaches 80m/s at the end of the run way in 20s. How much did the airliner accelerate if it started from rest?Calculating Negative AccelerationIf a skateboarder is skating at a speed of 3m/s and comes to a rest in 2 seconds. Calculate the acceleration.
31 GraphSpeed vs time Graph – shows how speed changed with time – acceleration is the slope of the speed –time graph.
34 Motion and ForceA force is a push or a pull. It can cause the motion of an object to change.EX: kicking a soccer ball, Earth’s gravitational pull on you, force exerted by the floor on your feetForces do not always change velocity. When two or more forces act on an object at the same time, the forces combine to form the net force.Forces on an object that are equal in size and opposite in direction are called balanced forces.
35 Net Forces: Balanced and Unbalanced Forces Unbalanced Forces are when two unequal forces are applied to an object. The object moves in the direction of the larger force.The net force will be the difference between the two forces because they are in opposite directions.If the object is pushed in the same direction, the forces are combined. (added together)