# Chapter 2 Energy and Matter. Energy Capacity to do work or produce heat 3 types of energy – Kinetic—Energy in motion – Potential—Stored energy – Radiant—Energy.

## Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Energy and Matter. Energy Capacity to do work or produce heat 3 types of energy – Kinetic—Energy in motion – Potential—Stored energy – Radiant—Energy."— Presentation transcript:

Chapter 2 Energy and Matter

Energy Capacity to do work or produce heat 3 types of energy – Kinetic—Energy in motion – Potential—Stored energy – Radiant—Energy from all angles

Units of Energy calorie- heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius. Formula 1 cal= 1 g x 1 o c Calorie= 1000 calories or 1 kilocalorie – A human needs 2000 Calories a day to maintain life processes. – Michael Phelps took in 10000-14000 Calories a day when he was swimming in the Olympics.

The Joule SI unit of energy Named after James Joule 1 cal= 4.184 j How many joules of energy are equal to 3000 Calories? How many Calories are equal to 14000 j? To lift an apple 1 meter high takes about 1 j

Law of Conservation of Energy Developed by James Joule Energy can not be created or destroyed. It is transferred or transformed.

Temperature 1 st thermometer was invented by Galileo Galilei Gabriel Fahrenheit made 1 st good thermometer Anders Celsius made a scale that was accepted by scientists – Freezing point of water is 0 degrees – Boiling point of water is 100 degrees

Temperature Conversions o F = o C x 1.8 + 32 o C = o F -32/1.8 K= o C + 273 o C = K - 273

Kelvin Scale SI unit for temperature Same size as celsius – Difference is the zero point – Zero on the kelvin scale is known as absolute zero – The point at which all matter stops – Has never been reached but we are close

Matter Anything that has mass and volume Six states of matter – solid – Liquid – Gas – Plasma – Bose-Einstein – Fermiion

Properties of Matter Physical Properties – Characteristics that can be observed without altering the identity. – Density, color, melting point, boiling point Chemical properties – Can not be observed without altering the identity – Flammability, oxidation

Changing States Solid to liquid— Liquid to gas— Gas to liquid— Solid to gas— Gas to solid—

Changes in Matter Physical change – Alter the form but not the identity – Usually a state change – Melt, rip, crush Chemical change – Chemical reaction – When something changes color or is burned.

Law of Conservation of Matter Developed by Antoine Lavoisier Matter can not be created or destroyed in any process

Elements and Compounds Elements – Substance that can not be broken down into a simpler substance. – Can only go as small as the atom Compounds – Two or more elements chemically combined – Can only be broken into the elements that are present in them

Mixtures Blend of two or more substances that can be separated Heterogeneous mixture – Mixture with visibly different parts – Sand and water, Italian dressing Homogeneous mixture – Mixture where there is not a visible difference – Seawater, air

Separating Mixtures Heterogeneous – Filtration Homogeneous – Distillation, crystallization, chromatography

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