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Work and Energy Unit Chapter 9

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Energy The ability to do work or cause change Can be transferred into other forms (energy flow) Is conserved (can neither be created nor destroyed) SI Unit is Joules Anything with energy can produce a force that is capable acting over a distance LT 1 I can define energy

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Work Force times distance the force is applied (W = Fd) When work is done, energy is transferred, stored or used (a change occurs) SI Unit is Joules Work is done by forces The object must move for work to be done LT 2 I can define work.

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Power The rate at which energy is transferred or work is done (work per second) SI Unit is Watts (Joules/second) The faster the energy is used, the greater the power More powerful if –more work is done in same time –same work is done in less time LT 5 I can define power and its relationship to energy.

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Work Positive work is work done by a force acting in the direction of the displacement (or motion). (example: force applied by engine to wheels of a car) Negative work is work done by force acting in the opposite direction of the displacement (or motion) (example: Friction) LT 3 I can identify the difference between positive and negative work.

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Work Another way of looking at this… Positive work adds energy to the system Negative work takes away energy from the system LT 3 I can identify the difference between positive and negative work.

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a) Did the weightlifter do work on the barbell and weights? b) Is the weightlifter currently doing work on the barbell and weights? c) Explain two ways that the work done by the weightlifter might be increased. 1. 2. 6.1 Work = force × distance

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Did the weightlifter do work on the barbell and weights? Yes, when he first lifted them above his head. Is the weightlifter currently doing work on the barbell and weights? No, the barbell and weights are not moving. Explain two ways that the work done by the weightlifter might be increased. 9.1 Work = force × distance 1)Increase the weight on the ends of the barbell 2)Increase the distance over which the weightlifter pushes the barbell and weights.

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While the weight lifter is holding a barbell over his head, he may get really tired, but he does no work on the barbell. Work may be done on the muscles by stretching and squeezing them, but this work is not done on the barbell. When the weight lifter raises the barbell, he is doing work on it. 9.1 Work

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Work has the same units as energy Joules Newton x meter JN x m 9.1 Work One joule (J) of work is done when a force of 1 N is exerted over a distance of 1 m (lifting an apple over your head).

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What happens to KE and TME when the brakes are applied? What work is being done?

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Watch the transfer of KE and PE. What happens to the PE when the skier moves down the hill? What happens to the KE and TME when the skier travels over the unpacked snow? What work is done?

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Jet engine vs. lawn mower engine Both receive ½ gallon of fuel (same energy, same work) A high-power jet engine does work rapidly, uses ½ gallon in 1 second. The low-powered lawn mower engine does work slowly, using ½ gallon in 30 minutes. 9.2 Power vs.

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Power is the rate at which work is done. 9.2 Power The unit of power is the joule per second, also known as the watt. One watt (W) of power is expended when one joule of work is done in one second. One kilowatt (kW) equals 1000 watts. One megawatt (MW) equals one million watts. P = w/t

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Power When you run 3 km rather than walk, you use the energy more quickly because your body demands more energy per unit time. When you compare the amount of energy required to operate an electric dryer vs. a laptop computer, the electric dryer demands more energy per unit time. More energy per unit time means more power is required! Needs 5500 J/s Needs 50 J/s

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Power 100 W incandescent light bulb How much electrical energy per second? 100 joules per second.

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Power vs. Work When carrying a load up some stairs, you do the same amount of work whether you walk or run up the stairs. Whether you walk 3 km or run 3 km, you do the same amount of work (your weight x distance), burn roughly the same amount of calories, and use the same amount of energy. So what is power?

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Power Consider a person climbing stairs. Name two ways that the person can double their power when moving. Do twice the work in the same amount of time (climb a second flight of stairs in the same time) Do the same amount of work in half the time (climb one flight of stairs in half the time).

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The three main engines of the space shuttle can develop 33,000 MW of power when fuel is burned at the enormous rate of 3400 kg/s. 9.2 Power

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think! If a forklift is replaced with a new forklift that has twice the power, how much greater a load can it lift in the same amount of time? If it lifts the same load, how much faster can it operate? 9.2 Power

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think! If a forklift is replaced with a new forklift that has twice the power, how much greater a load can it lift in the same amount of time? If it lifts the same load, how much faster can it operate? Answer: The forklift that delivers twice the power will lift twice the load in the same time, or the same load in half the time. 9.2 Power

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Watch the transfer of KE and PE. What happens to the PE when the skier moves down the hill? What happens to the KE and TME when the skier travels over the unpacked snow? What work is done?

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When is work done on an object? When is work not done on an object? 9.1 Work When the object moves. When the object does not move.

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Kinetic Energy The energy of motion KE = ½m x v 2 Different forms of KE (mechanical, electrical, thermal, electromagnetic or light) What is kinetic energy? What are the forms of KE?

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Kinetic Energy KE increases with speed KE increases with mass

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WIND ENERGY Atmospheric pressure differences cause air particles to move.

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SOUND ENERGY Energy caused by compression of air particles.

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ELECTRICAL ENERGY Energy of moving charged particles.

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THERMAL ENERGY The energy of moving and vibrating molecules Sometimes called heat.

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LIGHT or RADIANT ENERGY Energy that travels in waves as electromagnetic radiation and/or as photons.

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When you throw a ball, you do work on it to give it speed as it leaves your hand. The moving ball can then hit something and push it, doing work on what it hits. 9.5 Kinetic Energy WORK

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If the speed of an object is doubled, its kinetic energy is quadrupled (2 2 = 4). It takes four times the work to double the speed. An object moving twice as fast takes four times as much work to stop and will take four times as much distance to stop. 9.5 Kinetic Energy

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Kinetic Energy How does KE increase or decrease? Increase or decrease the velocity or the mass!!!! Double the velocity, Quadruple the KE!!!!! Prove it: Calculate the KE of a 2500 kg car traveling at 20 m/s and at 40 m/s KE at 20 m/sKE at 40 m/s (500,000 J)(2,000,000 J)

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Kinetic Energy More mass, same speed, more KE. Double the mass, double the KE Prove it: Calculate the KE of a 100 kg cart and a 200 kg cart, each traveling at 15 m/s 100 kg cart at 15 m/s 200 kg cart at 15 m/s (11,250 J)(22,500 J)

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Potential Energy Stored energy or the energy of position Gravitational PE is based on height and mass Gravitational PE is mass x gravity x height (GPE = mgh) Increases in height cause increases in stored energy What is potential energy? How does GPE change?

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Gravitational Potential Energy Energy is stored in an object as the result of increasing its height. Work is required to elevate objects against Earth’s gravity. Example: Water in an elevated reservoir and the raised ram of a pile driver have gravitational potential energy. 9.4 Potential Energy

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The amount of gravitational potential energy possessed by an elevated object is equal to the work done against gravity to lift it. PE = mgh What is the gravitational PE of a 10.0 kg object at 4.00 m above the ground? mg is weight (in newtons) [mass (kg) x gravity (m/s 2 )] 10 kg x 9.8 m/s 2 x 4 m = 392 J 9.4 Potential Energy

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The potential energy of the 100-N boulder with respect to the ground below is 200 J in each case. a.The boulder is lifted with 100 N of force. 9.4 Potential Energy

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The potential energy of the 100-N boulder with respect to the ground below is 200 J in each case. a.The boulder is lifted with 100 N of force. b.The boulder is pushed up the 4-m incline with 50 N of force. 9.4 Potential Energy

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The potential energy of the 100-N boulder with respect to the ground below is 200 J in each case. a.The boulder is lifted with 100 N of force. b.The boulder is pushed up the 4-m incline with 50 N of force. c.The boulder is lifted with 100 N of force up each 0.5-m stair. 9.4 Potential Energy

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think! You lift a 100-N boulder 1 m. a. How much work is done on the boulder? b. What power is expended if you lift the boulder in a time of 2 s? c. What is the gravitational potential energy of the boulder in the lifted position? 9.4 Potential Energy

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Other forms of PE Other forms of PE (Chemical PE, Elastic PE, Electric PE, Magnetic PE, Nuclear PE) Changes in position in a force field changes the PE (gravitational fields, magnetic fields and electric fields) What are the forms of potential energy?

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Elastic Potential Energy—potential to do work Energy stored in a stretched or compressed spring or material. When a bow is drawn back, energy is stored and the bow can do work on the arrow. These types of potential energy are elastic potential energy. 9.4 Potential Energy

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CHEMICAL POTENTIAL ENERGY Energy due to the bond position between molecules (stored during bonding). Potential chemical energy is released from chemical reactions (burning, for example). Fuels, Food, Batteries, for example.

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Name three examples of potential energy. 9.4 Potential Energy

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Difference between kinetic energy and potential energy Kinetic energy The energy of motion Potential energy The energy of position or stored energy

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Mechanical Energy The sum of the KE and PE in a system: (total ME = KE + PE) Describes energy associated with the motion of objects The KE and GPE are conserved for moving objects (neglecting friction, drag, vibrations and sound) What is mechanical energy?

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Mechanical Energy = PE + KE The total mechanical energy = 100 J 100 J = 100 J PE + 0 J KE 100 J = 50 J PE + 50 J KE 100 J = 0 J PE + 100 J KE

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Watch how KE and gravitational PE transform Where is the KE at the maximum? Where is the PE at the maximum? How is PE stored?

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Watch the change in height vs. the change in speed! How does the change in height affect KE and PE?

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Slides showing transformation of KE and PE Source: http://www.physicsclassroom.com/mmedia /index.cfm http://www.physicsclassroom.com/mmedia /index.cfm

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Same work, more force, less displacement (from left to right)

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Non-Mechanical Energy Energy not associated with the motion of objects Typical examples are vibrations, sound and heat Referred to as dissipated energy or waste energy Can be “observed” at the molecular level Path of energy transfer that reduces the KE of the object What is non- mechanical energy?

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Indicate where: KE is at a minimum and maximum GPE is at a minimum and maximum The speed is greatest The speed is least Energy is being stored and released Positions 1 and 5 are at the same height 1. Explain how energy transforms and is conserved as the pendulum swings back and forth 2. What happens as the KE increases? 3. What happens as the GPE increases?

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KE min PE max PE min KE min KE max PE max transformation of PE to KE (release) V = 0 m/s V = maximum transformation of KE to PE (storage)

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Analyzing KE and PE Distance (from motion detector) time closest farthest

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Work – Energy Theorem Work done changes the energy. If a car has 34,000 J of KE, 34,000 J of work was done on the car to speed it up, and braking will require 34,000 J of negative work due to friction to bring the car to rest What is the relationship between work and kinetic energy (work-energy theorem)?

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Due to friction, energy is transferred both into the floor and into the tire when the bicycle skids to a stop. a.An infrared camera reveals the heated tire track on the floor. 9.6 Work-Energy Theorem http://www.batesville.k12.in.us/physics/phy net/mechanics/energy/braking_distance.ht m

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Due to friction, energy is transferred both into the floor and into the tire when the bicycle skids to a stop. a.An infrared camera reveals the heated tire track on the floor. b.The warmth of the tire is also revealed. 9.6 Work-Energy Theorem kinetic energy is transformed into thermal energy, sound and vibrations, which represent work done to slow the bike (Fd)

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The work-energy theorem states that whenever work is done, energy changes. 9.6 Work-Energy Theorem Work = ∆KE Work equals the change in kinetic energy.

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Calculating Stopping Distance Fd = ½ mv 2 What is the stopping distance for a 650 kg car that is traveling 5 m/s if 4,500 N of braking force is applied? d = ½ mv 2 F d = 1.8 m Calculate the stopping distance for the same car that travels at 10 m/s. 7.2 m.

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Calculating Stopping Distance Calculate the stopping distance for the same car that travels at 10 m/s. 7.2 m. How does this stopping distance compare with the stopping distance at 5 m/s? It is four times greater! Double the speed, quadruple the stopping distance.

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Calculate Stopping Distance Fd = ½ mv 2 - Calculate the difference in stopping distance for a car that travels at 30 km/h and the same car that travels 60 km/h. Assume that the mass of the car is 800 kg and the braking force is 5000 N. Show your work and analyze your results. (Note: you must first convert km/h to m/s) How does speed influence stopping distance?

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A car moving at twice the speed of another has four times as much kinetic energy, and will require four times as much work to stop. The frictional force is nearly the same for both cars, so the faster one takes four times as much distance to stop. Kinetic energy depends on speed squared. 9.6 Work-Energy Theorem

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Typical stopping distances for cars equipped with antilock brakes traveling at various speeds. The work done to stop the car is friction force × distance of slide. 9.6 Work-Energy Theorem

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Typical stopping distances for cars equipped with antilock brakes traveling at various speeds. The work done to stop the car is friction force × distance of slide. 9.6 Work-Energy Theorem

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Typical stopping distances for cars equipped with antilock brakes traveling at various speeds. The work done to stop the car is friction force × distance of slide. 9.6 Work-Energy Theorem

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think! When the brakes of a car are locked, the car skids to a stop. How much farther will the car skid if it’s moving 3 times as fast? 9.6 Work-Energy Theorem

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think! When the brakes of a car are locked, the car skids to a stop. How much farther will the car skid if it’s moving 3 times as fast? Answer: Nine times farther. The car has nine times as much kinetic energy when it travels three times as fast: 9.6 Work-Energy Theorem

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For moving objects such as cars: The more kinetic energy it has, the more work is required to stop it. Twice as much kinetic energy means twice as much work. Brakes do work on wheels (you do work by pushing the brake pedal). When a car brakes, the work is the friction force (supplied by the brakes) multiplied by the distance over which the friction force acts. KE is transformed by work (friction) into thermal energy, sound energy and larger-scale vibrations. 9.6 Work-Energy Theorem

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The law of conservation of energy states that energy cannot be created or destroyed. It can be transformed from one form into another, but the total amount of energy never changes. 9.7 Conservation of Energy For any system in its entirety—as simple as a swinging pendulum or as complex as an exploding galaxy—there is one quantity that does not change: energy. Energy may change form, but the total energy stays the same.

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When energy is transformed, it is conserved, meaning that it will change form without losing its original amount of energy. 9.7 Conservation of Energy

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When the woman leaps from the burning building, the sum of her PE and KE remains constant at each successive position all the way down to the ground. 9.7 Conservation of Energy

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Elastic potential energy will become the kinetic energy of the arrow when the bow does work on the arrow. 9.7 Conservation of Energy As you draw back the arrow in a bow, you do work stretching the bow. The bow then has potential energy. When released, the arrow has kinetic energy equal to this potential energy. It delivers this energy to its target.

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Everywhere along the path of the pendulum bob, the sum of PE and KE is the same. Because of the work done against friction, this energy will eventually be transformed into heat. 9.7 Conservation of Energy Non-useful work can also be called non-useful energy!

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9.7Conservation of Energy Why does a tennis ball eventually stop bouncing? Eventually, all of the total mechanical energy is transformed into non-useful energy (heat, sound, movement of fibers) 50 J PE 50 JKE New height less than before means less PE stored 35 J PE Bounce! 35 J KE Bounce! 20 J PE (bounce and so on!) 20 J KE

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Slides showing transformation of KE and PE Source: http://www.physicsclassroom.com/mmedia /index.cfm http://www.physicsclassroom.com/mmedia /index.cfm

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Watch how KE and gravitational PE transform Where is the KE at the maximum? Where is the PE at the maximum? How is PE stored?

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Watch the change in height vs. the change in speed! How does the change in height affect KE and PE?

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What happens to KE and TME when the brakes are applied? What work is being done?

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Watch the transfer of KE and PE. What happens to the PE when the skier moves down the hill? What happens to the KE and TME when the skier travels over the unpacked snow? What work is done?

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Same work, more force, less displacement (from left to right)

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think! Suppose that you apply a 60-N horizontal force to a 32 kg package, which pushes it 4 meters across a mailroom floor. How much work do you do on the package? 9.1 Work

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think! Suppose that you apply a 60-N horizontal force to a 32-kg package, which pushes it 4 meters across a mailroom floor. How much work do you do on the package? Answer: W = Fd = 60 N × 4 m = 240 J 9.1 Work

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9.7Conservation of Energy Same energy transformation applies The 2 J of heat can be called non- useful work (work that is not part of the object’s total mechanical energy). 10 J of PE does 8 J useful work on the arrow and 2 J of non-useful work on the molecules that compose the bow and string and arrow. The arrow has 8 J of KE as a result. Dissipated energy (DE) is amount of energy transferred away from the total mechanical energy. More DE means less KE, which reduces TME, which means less speed! Total Mechanical Energy Non-mechanical Energy (dissipated) Total Mechanical Energy

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9.7Conservation of Energy The 2 J of heat can be called non- useful work (work that is not part of the object’s total mechanical energy). Dissipated energy (DE) is amount of energy transferred away from the total mechanical energy. More DE means less KE, which reduces TME, which means less speed! Total Mechanical Energy Non-mechanical Energy (dissipated) Total Mechanical Energy

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Energy can change from one form to another without a net loss or gain. LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY!!! (You will learn to identify these transformations)

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