Presentation on theme: "ALGORITHMS AND FLOWCHARTS"— Presentation transcript:
1 ALGORITHMS AND FLOWCHARTS For grade VIIIBy Indrani
2 ALGORITHMS AND FLOWCHARTS A typical programming task can be divided into two phases:Problem solving phaseproduce an ordered sequence of steps that describe solution of problemthis sequence of steps is called an algorithmImplementation phaseimplement the program in some programming language
4 Steps in Problem Solving First produce a general algorithm (one can use pseudocode)Refine the algorithm successively to get step by step detailed algorithm that is very close to a computer language.Pseudocode is an artificial and informal language that helps programmers develop algorithms. Pseudocode is very similar to everyday English.
5 Pseudocode & Algorithm Example 1: Write an algorithm to determine a student’s final grade and indicate whether it is passing or failing. The final grade is calculated as the average of four marks.
6 Pseudocode & Algorithm Input a set of 4 marksCalculate their average by summing and dividing by 4if average is below 50Print “FAIL”elsePrint “PASS”
8 The Flowchart(Dictionary) A schematic representation of a sequence of operations, as in a manufacturing process or computer program.(Technical) A graphical representation of the sequence of operations in an information system or program. Information system flowcharts show how data flows from source documents through the computer to final distribution to users. Program flowcharts show the sequence of instructions in a single program or subroutine. Different symbols are used to draw each type of flowchart.
9 The Flowchart A Flowchart shows logic of an algorithm emphasizes individual steps and their interconnectionse.g. control flow from one action to the next
11 Example 2Write an algorithm and draw a flowchart to convert the length in feet to centimeter.Pseudocode:Input the length in feet (Lft)Calculate the length in cm (Lcm) by multiplying LFT with 30Print length in cm (LCM)
12 Example 2 Algorithm Step 1: Input Lft Step 2: Lcm Lft x 30 FlowchartAlgorithmStep 1: Input LftStep 2: Lcm Lft x 30Step 3: Print LcmSTARTInputLftLcm Lft x 30PrintLcmSTOPPrint LCM
13 Example 3Write an algorithm and draw a flowchart that will read the two sides of a rectangle and calculate its area.PseudocodeInput the width (W) and Length (L) of a rectangleCalculate the area (A) by multiplying L with WPrint A
14 Example 3 Algorithm Step 1: Input W,L Step 2: A L x W Step 3: Print ASTARTInputW, LA L x WPrintASTOPprint a
15 DECISION STRUCTURES The expression A>B is a logical expression it describes a condition we want to testif A>B is true (if A is greater than B) we take the action on leftprint the value of Aif A>B is false (if A is not greater than B) we take the action on rightprint the value of B
16 DECISION STRUCTURESisA>BPrint BPrint AYNPrint APrint B
17 IF–THEN–ELSE STRUCTURE The structure is as followsIf condition thentrue alternativeelsefalse alternativeendif
18 IF–THEN–ELSE STRUCTURE The algorithm for the flowchart is as follows:If A>B thenprint Aelseprint BendifisA>BPrint BPrint AYNPrint APrint B
19 Relational Operators Operator Description Relational Operators > Greater than<Less than=Equal toGreater than or equal toLess than or equal toNot equal to
20 Example 5Write an algorithm that reads two values, determines the largest value and prints the largest value with an identifying message.ALGORITHMStep 1: Input VALUE1, VALUE2Step 2: if (VALUE1 > VALUE2) thenMAX VALUE1elseMAX VALUE2endifStep 3: Print “The largest value is”, MAX
21 “The largest value is”, MAX Example 5MAX VALUE1Print“The largest value is”, MAXSTOPYNSTARTInputVALUE1,VALUE2MAX VALUE2isVALUE1>VALUE2Pint “largest value is “, max
22 NESTED IFS One of the alternatives within an IF–THEN–ELSE statement may involve further IF–THEN–ELSE statement
23 Example 6Write an algorithm that reads three numbers and prints the value of the largest number.
24 Example 6 Step 1: Input N1, N2, N3 Step 2: if (N1>N2) then MAX N1 [N1>N2, N1>N3]elseMAX N3 [N3>N1>N2]endifif (N2>N3) thenMAX N2 [N2>N1, N2>N3]MAX N3 [N3>N2>N1]Step 3: Print “The largest number is”, MAX
25 Example 6Flowchart: Draw the flowchart of the above Algorithm.
26 Loop A loop is a series of commands that will continue to repeat over and over again until a condition is met. For example, you want print your names for five times. Instead of keep five output statement you can have loop statement and one input statement
27 Algorithm to print your name for five times Step 1 : count=1Step 2: while (count <=5)2.a print “yourname”2.b count=count+1[end of while]
28 Flowcharts to print your name 5 times StartCount=1noCount <=5yesStartPrint “your name”Count = count+1
29 Exercise on loopWrite an algorithm and draw a flowchart to print 1 to 100 using loopWrite an algorithm and draw a flowchart to print all even number between 50 to 100 using loopWrite an algorithm and draw a flowchart to print 40 to 10 in reverse order using loop ( …………………..10)
30 Some important termsVariable : A variable is a storage location and an associated symbolic name (an identifier) which contains some known or unknown quantity or information, a value. The variable name is the usual way to reference the stored value.Subroutine :a subroutine is a sequence of program instructions that perform a specific task, packaged as a unit. This unit can then be used in programs wherever that particular task should be performed. Subprograms may be defined within programs, or separately in libraries that can be used by multiple programs.