Presentation on theme: "Early Childhood Theorists"— Presentation transcript:
1 Early Childhood Theorists Advanced Child Development
2 National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) Refers to period from birth to eightTheir belief: know the child, know where he is developmentally, know his talents and interestsTeachers be aware of: basic needs of play and rest, focusing on children’s development in all areas (physical, intellectual, emotional, social), cultural differences, and supporting parents and families.
3 Developmentally Appropriate Practices (DAP) All programs should be:Age-appropriateIndividually appropriateHands onUses all sensesNo winners or losersChildren explore and predict through hands-on props and activities
5 B.F. SkinnerOperant Conditioning- the use of consequences to modify behavior.Reinforcement= Increase in BehaviorPositive Reinforcement: behavior is followed by a positive stimulus.Negative Reinforcement: Behavior is followed by the removal of a negative stimulus.Punishment = Decrease in BehaviorPositive Punishment: Behavior is followed by a negative stimulus.Negative Punishment: Behavior is followed by removal of a positive stimulus.
6 B.F. Skinner Reinforcement = increase in behavior Punishment = decrease in behaviorPositive= giving somethingNegative= taking something away
7 Constructivist Theories Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky, Howard Garnder
8 Constructivist Theories Constructivist Theory- emphasizes the active role of children in developing their understanding and learning.Belief that children actively seek knowledge.Explains cognitive developmentProvides guidance for how and what to teach.
9 Jean Piaget Active Learning Schemes Adaptation The view that children develop knowledge and learn by being physically and mentally engaged in learning activities.SchemesOrganized units of knowledgeAdaptationThe process of building schemes through interaction with the environment.
10 Jean Piaget Assimilation Accommodation Equilibrium The process of fitting new information into existing schemes.AccommodationChanging or altering existing schemes or creating new ones in response to new information.EquilibriumA balance between existing and new schemes.
11 Jean Piaget See handout on Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development SensorimotorPreoperationalConcrete OperationalFormal Operational
12 Jean Piaget- Sensorimotor Stage Birth – 2 yearsChildren learn through the senses and motor activities.Review characteristics on handout!
13 Jean Piaget- Preoperational Stage 2-7 yearsYoung children become capable of mental representations.Representations- use symbols such as language, pictures, drawings, and play to represent objects and events.Cannot Conserve- determine that the quantity of an object does not change simply because it changes in physical appearance.Egocentric- speech is directed at oneself that helps guide behavior.
14 Jean Piaget- Concrete Operations Stage 7-12 yearsChildren’s thought is logical and can organize concrete experiencesMastered conservation.Able to classify.
15 Lev VygotskyChildren’s mental, language, and social development is supported by and enhanced through social interaction.Opposite of Piaget- who sees children as solitary developers of their own intelligence of language.Believed that children seek out adult for social interaction.
16 Vygotsky Zone of Proximal Development Intersubjectivity Scaffolding Range of tasks that are too difficult to master alone but can be learned with guidance and assistance.IntersubjectivityIndividuals come to a task, problem, or conversation with their own way of making sense of it.ScaffoldingProcess of providing various types of support, guidance, or direction during the course of an activity.
17 Howard Gardner Philosophy of Multiple Intelligences. People can be smart in many different areas and in many different ways.People learn in many different ways.View and discuss handout on Gardner’s 8 Intelligences.
18 View and discuss Erikson Handout. Erik EriksonIdea that cognitive (brain) and social development occur hand-in-hand and cannot be separated.Children’s personalities and social skills grow and develop in response to the demands, expectations, and values placed upon them by their surroundings.View and discuss Erikson Handout.
19 View Hierarchy of Needs Handout. Abraham MaslowHierarchy of NeedsEveryone has the same basic needs.These basic needs must be met before higher level needs can be satisfied.View Hierarchy of Needs Handout.
20 View and discuss Ecological Influences Diagram Handout! Urie BrofenbrennerThe Ecological TheoryLooks at children’s development within the context of 5 environmental systems.View and discuss Ecological Influences Diagram Handout!
21 How have things changed? Old WayNew WayProfessional as Expert/ TeacherProfessionals determine needs of the children without family support.Family as Expert/TeacherProfessionals are responsive to families knowledge, needs, and choices.Professionally BasedThe family accesses professional services (physical therapy, speech therapy etc.)Resource BasedProfessionals and families work together to access formal and informal supports in the community. (mommy and me, parents as teachers, etc. )Deficit BasedHow can we “fix” this child?Strength BasedHow can we build on child and family strengths to improve daily life?Clinic CenteredChild is brought to center for services.Natural EnvironmentServices are brought to the child wherever he or she is.Live, Learn, and PlayChildren spend their days in segregated settings.Children spend their days in settings with children with disabilities.