2 Shape/ Container Relationship The size and visual weight of a design element can help convey the meaning of your message.Packaging is importantMost people are affected by the shape of the container (page or monitor holding the visual element).Fold a page vertically- it is perceived to be elegant, slim and pricyFold the page horizontally- is perceived squat and cheapItems position on a page also conveys unconscious messagesGraphic designers are often asked to rework product into different containers.This principle will be evident because the physical shape of the design adds value or meaningEx. A heart shaped Valentine’s Day Card.A design that uses a unique shape instead of the standard square or rectangle.
3 BalanceBalance refers to the arrangement of shapes, illustrations and text on a page.The idea is to arrange elements within a layout so they create a harmonious composition.3 types:
4 Formal BalanceThe placement of visual effects with equal distribution of visual weight on the left and right side of the imaginary center vertical axis.Left and right side are mirror imagesUsed to give appearance of solidity, tradition,reliability and other dependable ideals
6 Informal (Asymmetrical)Balance More common than Formal BalanceDoes not rely on centered effectLeft and right sides of page do not need to mirror each otherElements counterbalance each otherGives appearance of modern, trendy, energetic, free-spirited, fresh, casual and smart
10 BALANCE- Rule of Thirds Most designs can be made more interesting by visually dividing the page into thirds vertically and/or horizontally and placing the most important elements within those thirds.In photographic composition this is often achieved by dividing the page into thirds both vertically and horizontally and placing your most important elements at one or more of the four intersections of those lines
13 BALANCE-Visual Center Placing important elements or the focal point of the design within the visual center is another design trick.The visual center is slightly to the right of and above the actual center of a page.
15 Grids and BalanceConstructing the underlying structure of a piece is complicated, but essential for most designs.Most balanced designs (and even unbalanced ones) rely on a grid.Grid- invisible structure (visible while working in page layout program) helps ensure that all elements are placed in the right location to achieve balance as well as to help with continuity and consistency of design.
17 White Space This principle is similar to Negative/Positive space It differs in that it focuses on creating white space, or on the absence of text and graphics.It breaks up text and graphics.It provides visual breathing room for the eye.Add white space to make a page less cramped, confusing, or overwhelming.
19 Z PatternPeople generally move across a printed page from left to rightEye starts at the upper-left corner, travels across to the top-right corner, moves diagonally to the lower-left corner and then moves across again to finish at the bottom lower-right corner.Creates visual interestShould have some heavy element at the bottom right of layout to stop viewer’s eye
21 RhythmVisual Rhythm helps to set the tone, pace and progression from start to finishRepeating the shape, size and value of elements in a layout can set the mood for a piece and reinforces the overall tonePeople look at larger elements firstLarger elements have a slower rhythmSmaller elements have a faster rhythmPeople look at darker elements before lighter onesPeople look at unusual shapes before conventional ones
23 Contrast Contrast occurs when two elements are different. The greater the difference the greater the contrast.The key to working with contrast is to make sure the differences are obvious.Four common methods of creating contrast are by using differences in size, color, and type.
25 AlignmentAlignment is the placement of text and graphics so they line up on the page. Use alignment to:create orderorganize page elementsgroup itemscreate visual connectionsTypesHorizontalVerticalEdge- aligns along top,bottom,left or right edgesCenterVisual or Optical- may not be precisely aligned but appear aligned to the eye
27 Proximity/ UnityThe law of proximity states that objects near each other tend to be seen as a unit.It is important to keep this law in mind when designing print and web based materials.One should always focus on how the intended audience will interpret the graphics you use.This is especially important in cases when an image plays a vital role in the ability to interpret the message behind it.Usually, designs that depict proximity have borders or other elements that make all the separate elements of a design appear as one.
29 Principles ListMake sure that you find examples of each of the following principles.Shape Container/RelationshipFormal BalanceInformal balanceRadialRule of ThirdsVisual CenterGridsWhite SpaceRhythmContrastAlignmentProximity/Unity