Presentation on theme: "Perception of Language Requirements in the University Education System of Japan and America Cristian Reyes Advisors: Dr. Shigeko Sekine Dr. Yoshiko Saito-Abbot."— Presentation transcript:
Perception of Language Requirements in the University Education System of Japan and America Cristian Reyes Advisors: Dr. Shigeko Sekine Dr. Yoshiko Saito-Abbot Renaissance Schools International, SA, 2014
Outline Significance of Study Research Question Research Background Research Method Research Findings Conclusion Bibliography Acknowledgements Churston Ferrers Grammar School, 2009
Significance of the Study During my study abroad in Japan I became interested in the difference of the University foreign language education system between Japan and America. When I spoke to community members and students, they knew simple phrases of other foreign languages primarily English. Comparing it to my experience in America many university students have little knowledge of foreign languages. For this reasons I want to compare the perceptions of University student from both countries in learning a new foreign language. Emily’s languages, 2014
Research Question 1.What Perceptions do students of Japan and America have towards learning a foreign language and culture in their respective country? 2.In what ways have university students benefited through their language education system experience for a multicultural society?
Background Research 1.Writing Style: a)Japanese a)Hiragana, Katakana, Kanji 2.Language Difficulty Ranking 3.Foreign Language Education: a)Japan and America
Japan’s Writing Styles ●In the Japanese writing style kana and kanji are used. ●Kana is composed of Hiragana and Katakana. ●Hiragana has 46 characters. ●Katakana is used when writing foreign words. ●e.g. コーヒー (coffee), ビジネス (business) ●Kanji are derived from Chinese characters. Hiragana にほん Katakana ニッポン Kanji 日本 Jōyō kanji2136 characters Tōyō kanji1850 characters English26 Alphabet
Language Difficulty Ranking Category 1: 23-24 Weeks (575-600 hours) Category2: 30 Weeks (750hours) Category3: 36 weeks (900 hours) Category4: 44 weeks (1100 hours) Category5: 88 weeks (2200 hours) Afrikaans Danish French Italian Portuguese Spanish And 4 others GermanIndonesian Malaysian Swahili Albanian Bulgarian Croatian Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian* and 35 others Arabic Cantonese Mandarin Japanese* Korean Foreign Service Institute (FSI), n.d. Languages in category 1 are easier for English speakers. Languages preceded by asterisks are usually more difficult for native English speakers to learn than other languages in the same category.
Foreign Language Education: Japan ● High school graduation requirements: ●80 credits required: 18 credits for English courses ●University graduation requirement: ●124 credits required: 8 credits for foreign languages. ●Most courses are worth 2 credits ●English and its role in education: ●Translation and entrance examination (Stuart, 1986)
Foreign Language Education: America ●No Child Left Behind Act states study of foreign language as a core subject. (U.S. Department of Education, 2009) In the State of California the following apply: ●High school: On Average 1 year of either visual and performing arts, foreign language. (Ca. Department of Education, 2014) ●University of California: 2 years, 3 recommended ●California State University: 2 years
Foreign Language Education standards: America COMMUNICATIONCULTURECONNECTIONSCOMPARISONSCOMMUNITIES In order to learn the second language communication is important. will focus on understanding the cultural background of knowledge and language. It is important to understand the connection of the learning of other field studies. For example, upon learning Japanese, you must memorize and use a flash card, to learn a variety of words and expressions. it is important that students look at different perspectives of the world. will focus on interacting with people around them in an appropriate manner. ACTFL, n.d.
Research Method Study Participants 69 University Students 31 American Students (21 Male; 17 Female) 38 Japanese Students (12 Male; 19 Female) Research Instrument Online Survey Google forms (English – Japanese)
Who is a World Language and Culture major? 13 % of Americans and 48% of Japanese are WLC majors
Foreign Language Courses Taken Prior to University American students tend to take anywhere between half a year to 4 years of language before they enter Universities. Because of the compulsory education in Japan students take on average of 5-6 years of language education, primarily in English.
Years of Language Taken at University American students tend to take no more than 2 years of language course while they study at the university level. Japanese students tend to take on average of 2 to 3 years of language courses while they study at a university.
The Number of Bilingual Students Student generally feel that being bilingual means: to speak to others from different countries, have better job opportunities, receive a deeper cultural understanding and understand international relations.
Research Question 1 What Perceptions do students of Japan and America have towards learning a foreign language and culture in their respective country? Research Findings 1:
Both American and Japanese students are aware that their universities have language requirements. Are students informed of their universities language requirements?
Number of semesters for Language Requirement American students need an average of 3 semesters. Japanese students need an average of 4 semesters.
Do university students agree with the Foreign Language Requirements? From the students surveyed Japanese students agreed the most with their university foreign language requirements.
Reasons for studying Foreign Languages Both American and Japanese students showed about the same level of interest for studying foreign languages. American students Japanese students
Reasons for not taking foreign language courses American Japanese Both American and Japanese students surveyed believe that foreign language courses are hard.
Summary of the Research Findings 1 ●American Students and Japanese students both agree that Language requirements are important. ●The top 3 reasons for studying Foreign Languages are: ●Travel, Cultural perspectives and meeting new people. ●The most common reasons for students not continuing to study foreign languages are: ●They are difficult, Students don’t have time, Learning a languages takes up too much time.
Research Findings: Research Question 2 In what ways have university students benefited through their language education system experience for a multicultural society?
Top 4 experiences related to Foreign Language learning America (90% ) reaching better career opportunities. (72%) Traveling has become more enjoyable. (72%) A foreign language has helped me in my university studies. (72%) broadened my knowledge of a foreign culture, but has given me a new insight into my own culture. Japan (93%) Traveling becomes more enjoyable. (87%) broadened my knowledge of a foreign culture, but has given me a new insight into my own culture. (84%) I can learn to adapt unfamiliar areas and people. (84%) Cultural classes have given me a clear understanding of different cultural perspectives From the results American university students place a higher value in their opportunities in getting a better job. While Japanese students focus more towards having an enjoyable traveling experience.
Lowest 3 experiences related to Foreign Language learning AmericanJapanese 47% “ I am satisfied with the knowledge that I have of a foreign language.” 13%“ I am satisfied with the knowledge that I have of a foreign language.” 52% “ My foreign language professor have made a big impact in the development of my learning 35% “ I am comfortable in sharing my knowledge of a foreign language to others that might not know about it.” 57% “ I am comfortable in sharing my knowledge of a foreign language to others that might not know about it.” 42% “ I can speak confidently in social gatherings that ask me to speak in a foreign language.”
Summary of the Research Findings 2 ●Americans students’ main reason for studying a foreign language is to obtain a better job. ●Japanese students main reason for studying a foreign language is to enjoy travel. ●About half of the American students want more of an influence from professors in their foreign language studies. ●Also, students want to be able to show their knowledge of a Foreign Language to those whom might not know. ●Students want to fully use and understand a Foreign Language
Conclusion Majority of students agree with the importance of language requirements because they strive to travel abroad, become more cultural aware of others, and meet new people. Some American students were not aware of their university language requirements. Both American and Japanese students want to effectively use their knowledge of their foreign language, but feel that Foreign Languages are difficult and takes too much time. Yet, American students feel strongly that a foreign language will help them obtain better career opportunities. While, Japanese students want to learn foreign languages in order to enjoy traveling.
Bibliography Approaching Multilingual in Japan and the United States. Retrieved from http//l.usa.gov/lb63awl.com Collier, V.P., & Thomas, W.P. (2013) Education English Learners For A Transformed World, Inquiry system LTD; http://1.usa.gov/1MvFhJLhttp://1.usa.gov/1MvFhJL Clankie, Shawn M. (2000). Approaching Multilingualism in Japan and the United States. Retrieved from http://1.usa.gov/1b63aw1http://1.usa.gov/1b63aw1 General citation: Cortazzi, H. (1993). Modern Japan : A Concise Survey. New York: St. Martin’s Press. Effective Language Learning. (n.d) Retrieved May 12, 2015. From http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2011/01/26/18jackson_ep.h30.htmlhttp://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2011/01/26/18jackson_ep.h30.html H. Byrnes (2003)The Modern Language Journal. The Issue: Implications of Language Education Policies for Language Study in Schools and Universities. Retrieved from http://www.effectivelanguagelearning.com/language-guide/language- difficultyhttp://www.effectivelanguagelearning.com/language-guide/language- difficulty M, Jason. & (March 2013) Current Issues in Education. Investigating the Student Experiences of Mexican American PK 12 Educators to Cultivate Authentic Latino Recruitment Strategies: http://bit.ly/1NQcRh0http://bit.ly/1NQcRh0 Reischauer, E., & Reischauer, E. (1988). The Japanese today: Change and continuity.Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press. Reed, Helen R. (March 1997). American Teachers Working with Japanese Teachers of English in Japanese Schools. An American View of Educational Contradictions. Retrieved from http://1.usa.gov/1MvFhJLhttp://1.usa.gov/1MvFhJL
Media Resources ●Globes- http://parents.churston.torbay.sch.uk/subjects/languages/http://parents.churston.torbay.sch.uk/subjects/languages/ ●Foreign Flag Tree- http://rschooloc.org/advantage.htmlhttp://rschooloc.org/advantage.html ●Why learn a new language- https://www.pinterest.com/pin/321374123381215472/ https://www.pinterest.com/pin/321374123381215472/ ●Foreign Language Standards- http://www.actfl.org/node/192#standardshttp://www.actfl.org/node/192#standards
Acknowledgements Dr. Shigeko Sekine Dr. Yoshiko Saito-Abbot Parent Friends Clubs: Nu Alpha Kappa Fraternity Inc.