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Forestry Industry in Canada 4:25 mins What is logging? Basically,

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Presentation on theme: "Forestry Industry in Canada 4:25 mins What is logging? Basically,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Forestry Industry in Canada 4:25 mins What is logging? Basically, cutting down trees and selling the wood. Something tells me these guys aren’t making a lot of money though.

2 Forestry 1.Canada’s Forest Resource 2.Methods of Harvesting Forests 3.Forestry Issues

3 Forests in Canada -Forests cover 42% of Canada -4, 187, 820 kilometers squared -Almost half of Canada

4 Commercial VS. Non Commercial -25 % are commercial forests - 17 % are Non- Commercial Forests -58 % is Non- Forested

5 Pulp and Paper Products Quebec $11575 million Ontario $10018 million British Columbia $7514 million Other Provinces $7286 million Value of Forest Industry

6 British Columbia $11 234 million Quebec $5306 million Ontario $3454 million Alberta $1731 million New Brunswick $751 million Other Provinces $780 million Value of Forest Industry Wood Products

7 - Over 45 % of BC ‘s total area is commercial forest. -BC contains many softwood trees to make lumber out of. -This is majority the Montane forest region thus making it the largest commercial forest region. map.gif

8 Softwood and Hardwood Softwood Comes from coniferous trees and hardwood comes from deciduous trees. Hardwoods usually come from slower growing trees. Softwoods grow in huge sections of just softwoods, but hardwoods are mostly found with many varieties of other trees.

9 Why is Central Canada the leading Pulp and Paper producer? High energy rate Hydro energy provided energy needed Central Canada was full of rivers providing the energy needed. When Pulp and Paper became a major industry, central Canada was full of willing workers to build and work the mills. 2:36mins

10 Continued… Trees in central Canada were perfect for newspaper Newspaper required no or little chemicals Newspaper quickly became the best selling form of paper Central Canada was also close to the main buyers of Newspaper. The U.S.A. Newspaper saw rapid growth in sales around WW1, WW2 and still continues to see growth today.

11 Some Problems Trees used in paper face disease, over-farming/bad soil, and being used for other purposes (ex: Furniture) As more information becomes digital, paper is becoming obsolete, specifically newspaper People are beginning to concern themselves with the environment, and logging, pulp, etc… is becoming ‘vilified’ in the public mind.

12 Why is B.C. the leading producer of Canada’s lumber? B.C. is full of Softwood, a preferred wood for furniture, planks, etc.. Once demand for North American softwood came from China and Japan, prices and exports soared. Because B.C. is closest to Asia, B.C. sends most of the wood. B.C. is now experiencing a growth ‘bubble” B.C. is now exporting most of Canada’s wood.

13 Why is the number of Sawmills decreasing? Sawmills decreased because of recession, dispute, and decreased demand. In 2009 a recession hit and lumber decreased exceptionally A dispute between the U.S. about softwood trade lowered lumber sales Decreased demand was because of recycling, less need, etc…

14 Clear-cutting Shelterwood Cutting Selective cutting Methods of Harvesting Forests

15 Loggers remove every tree and leave a barren landscape. When replanted, the new forest grows uniformly in species and size Methods of Harvesting Forests Clear Cutting

16 Involves clear-cutting only part of an old growth forest Small groups of seed bearing trees are left so the area will regenerate. Shelterwood method is often used in forests that have grown and aged evenly Methods of Harvesting Forests Shelterwood Cutting

17 Another shot of the same stand in an area that has been finished-- except for picking up a few logs. The stand is about 65 years old. Only mature trees of the desired size, type or quality Selective Cutting Methods of Harvesting Forests

18 Comparing Logging Techniques Harvesting ProcessEase of LoggingCostEcological Protection Clear CuttingClear Cutting is the easiest type of logging because you just cut everything down Clear Cutting is not very costly because all you do is chop everything, unless the workers charge by the tree This method provides no form of ecological protection whatsoever. Shelterwood LoggingThis method is moderately difficult because you have to pick out certain generations of trees to cut. Shelterwood logging is moderately cost effective because you get the money over time. This method provides solid protection for the young saplings that are planted to replace the big ones. Selective CuttingSelective cutting is very easy because you only have to cut down one or two trees Selective cutting does not cost a lot because you are cutting down one or two trees. Selective cutting is traditionally thought to be economically sustainable but recent research has shown that it is actually harmful.

19 BC Forests: Environment or Industry? ENVIROMENTAL POINT OF VIEW Looking at the forests of British Columbia you can’t help but think that these forests are some of the most beautiful forests and they should be preserved.

20 Environmental Point of View After all the BC forests are home to more than 20 native animal types including the flying squirrel, the peregrine falcon, and the white tailed deer.

21 Environmental Point of View If the forests were to be cut down the would be catastrophic consequences to all of these animals who rely on these forests as a habitat.

22 Industrial Point of View To not meet China’s supply needs would be a serious blow to the economic recovery in British Columbia. 10% of British Columbia’s economy is dependant upon the lumber industry and China is 40% of the total exports.

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