2 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONHow does structure relate to function in living systems from the organismic to the cellular level?
3 DISCOVERING CELLSCells are the basic units of structure and function in living things.The microscope made it possible for people to discover and learn about cells. (1590)The microscope is an instrument that makes small objects look bigger.Compound microscopes are light microscopes that have more than one lens.
4 CELL THEORY All living things are composed of cells. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things.All cells are produced from other cells.
9 Plant Cells also have:Cell WallsChloroplastsLarge Vacuole
10 Animal Cells also have: LysosomesMany small vacuoles
11 The Nucleus most visible organelle in a cell control center for the cellstores the DNA that has all the “instructions” for the cell to function correctlyThe Nucleolus is a dark spot in the nucleus. It stores the materials that are used to make ribosomes.
12 Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) membrane covered organelleproduces lipidsbreaks down drugs and other substancespackages proteins to be sent out of the cellRough ER
13 Mitochondria organelle surrounded by 2 membranes breaks down food molecules to make energy for the cellhas its own DNA, separate from the nucleus and it is passed from the mother to her offspring
14 Cell Membrane covers the surface of a cell acts as a barrier between the inside of a cell and the cells’ environmentSome materials can pass through the cell membrane.
22 Lysosomesdigest food particles, wastes, cell parts, and foreign materials
23 PLANTS: Cell WallA structure that surrounds the cell membrane of some cells and provides protection, strength and support.
24 PLANTS: Chloroplasts found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis takes place (turning the sun’s energy into sugar for the plant.)
25 PLANTS: Large VacuoleMost plants have a large, membrane-covered chamber called a vacuole.Store water and other liquidsFull vacuoles help to support the plant; plants wilt when the vacuole is not full.