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What is a cell? Diversity of Life.

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Presentation on theme: "What is a cell? Diversity of Life."— Presentation transcript:

1 What is a cell? Diversity of Life

2 ESSENTIAL QUESTION How does structure relate to function in living systems from the organismic to the cellular level?

3 DISCOVERING CELLS Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things. The microscope made it possible for people to discover and learn about cells. (1590) The microscope is an instrument that makes small objects look bigger. Compound microscopes are light microscopes that have more than one lens.

4 CELL THEORY All living things are composed of cells.
Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things. All cells are produced from other cells.

5 Cell Organelles and their Functions

6 2 types of cells: Eukaryotic Prokaryotic
a cell that contains a nucleus and other structures Prokaryotic a cell without a nucleus; also known as bacteria

7 Two types of Eukaryotes:
Plant cells Animal cells

8 Plant & Animal Cells have:
Nucleus Nucleolus DNA Endoplasmic Reticulum Mitochondria Cell Membrane Cytoplasm Ribosomes Golgi Complex (Apparatus, Bodies) Vesicles (Different types)

9 Plant Cells also have: Cell Walls Chloroplasts Large Vacuole

10 Animal Cells also have:
Lysosomes Many small vacuoles

11 The Nucleus most visible organelle in a cell
control center for the cell stores the DNA that has all the “instructions” for the cell to function correctly The Nucleolus is a dark spot in the nucleus. It stores the materials that are used to make ribosomes.

12 Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
membrane covered organelle produces lipids breaks down drugs and other substances packages proteins to be sent out of the cell Rough ER

13 Mitochondria organelle surrounded by 2 membranes
breaks down food molecules to make energy for the cell has its own DNA, separate from the nucleus and it is passed from the mother to her offspring

14 Cell Membrane covers the surface of a cell
acts as a barrier between the inside of a cell and the cells’ environment Some materials can pass through the cell membrane.


16 Cell Membrane continued

17 Cytoplasm The fluid inside of a cell that surrounds the organelles is the cytoplasm.

18 Ribosomes small organelles that can be attached to the Endoplasmic Reticulum or ‘floating’ in the cytoplasm where proteins are made from amino acids

19 Golgi Complex modifies, packages, and transports materials out of the cell

20 Vesicles membrane-covered compartment in a cell
forms when the part of the cell membrane surrounds a cell and pinches off


22 Lysosomes digest food particles, wastes, cell parts, and foreign materials

23 PLANTS: Cell Wall A structure that surrounds the cell membrane of some cells and provides protection, strength and support.

24 PLANTS: Chloroplasts found in plant and algae cells
where photosynthesis takes place (turning the sun’s energy into sugar for the plant.)

25 PLANTS: Large Vacuole Most plants have a large, membrane-covered chamber called a vacuole. Store water and other liquids Full vacuoles help to support the plant; plants wilt when the vacuole is not full.


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