Presentation on theme: "Cleaning Up Diesel in the Bay Area What Are the Sources? What are the Clean-Up Opportunities? Patricia Monahan Senior Analyst, Clean Vehicles Program."— Presentation transcript:
Cleaning Up Diesel in the Bay Area What Are the Sources? What are the Clean-Up Opportunities? Patricia Monahan Senior Analyst, Clean Vehicles Program
Bay Area’s Diesel Pollution Inventory In 2002, B.A. diesel engines released –5,000 tons of fine soot –117 thousand tons of smog-forming NOx & ROG As a share of mobile source pollution, B.A. diesel engines are responsible for –Three-quarters of fine particles –44% of smog-forming NOx and ROG Source: CARB Emission Inventory for the Bay Area. Available online at http://www.arb.ca.gov/emisinv/maps/statemap/abmap.htm
Bay Area Pollution from Mobile Sources: Fine Soot (PM 2.5)
Bay Area Pollution from Mobile Sources: Smog-forming (NOx & ROG)
Bay Area Pollution from Diesel Mobile Sources: Fine Soot (PM 2.5)
2002 Bay Area Pollution Diesel Mobile Sources: Smog-forming (NOx & ROG)
2002 Bay Area Pollution Nonroad Diesel Engines: Fine Soot (PM 2.5)
Diesel engines have been under-regulated by EPA Highway trucks and buses built before 1988 did not have to meet ANY soot standard Why Are Diesel Engines Such Major Polluters? Weak Pollution Standards!
Why Are Off-road Engines the Largest Single Source of B.A. Soot? Even Weaker Pollution Standards! Off-road engines, like cranes and bulldozers, did not have to start meeting any pollution standards until 1996 –The pollution standards for off-road diesel engines are about 10 times weaker than highway standards Despite the downturn in the economy, construction has continued As a share of pollution from off-road engines, construction equipment accounts for –75% of fine soot –Over 80% of smog-forming pollutants
Reducing Diesel Pollution from New Engines New standards –Heavy-duty standards for new vehicles and ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel (90% less PM per vehicle in 2007) (95% less NOx per vehicle -- 2007/2010 phase in) –Proposed non-road diesel standards match onroad Limitations: –Requirements phased in over next decade –Full benefits are thirty years away –No new standards for trains, planes and ships
Diesel engines last a long time –Existing engines may last another 20-35 years CARB’s Diesel Risk Reduction Program –Retrofit regs stalled –Incentive programs out of funding CARB’s School Bus Program –Nearly out of funding The Bay Area needs more local clean up effortsThe Bay Area needs more local clean up efforts What About Trucks and Buses on the Road Today?
Replace –Use a cleaner engine powered by alternative fuels, like electricity or natural gas Retrofit –PM control: Particulate matter trap –PM control: Oxidation catalyst (oxy cat) –NOx & PM control: Lean NOx catalyst in conjunction with PM trap or oxy cat Fuel switching –Biodiesel –Emulsified diesel Diesel Clean Up
Cleaner Alternative Fuels, like Natural Gas Pros –1/3 reduction in NOx and 90% reduction in PM compared with new conventional diesel –NG has pushed diesel to become cleaner –Moves transportation system towards hydrogen –Potential for reduced maintenance costs Cons –Engines cost $10s of thousands more than diesel –Additional infrastructure costs –NG price fluctuations –Different maintenance procedures
PM Control: Diesel Particulate Matter Filter (PM trap) Pros: –85% or greater PM & toxics reduction –Soot emissions comparable to NG with oxy cat –Modest cost: around $5K Cons: –Can only be used on certain 1994 and newer engines –Must be used in conjunction with low sulfur diesel fuel –Some maintenance costs
PM Control: Oxidation Catalyst (oxy cat) Pros: –20-30% PM reduction –Inexpensive: $1-2K –Can be used to clean up older engines Cons –PM remains high
PM & NOx Control: Lean NOx Catalyst + Trap Pros: –85% PM, 25% NOx control –Only NOx aftertreatment available Cons: –94 and newer engines only –Cost >$15K
Fuel Switching BIODIESEL –Pros B20 offers 10% reduction in PM/toxics Modest cost increase of about 10% No engine modification –Cons Slight NOx increase Easy to switch back to diesel EMULSIFIED DIESEL –Pros 15% reduction in NOx; 58% reduction in PM –Cons Limited to specific applications Limited shelf life, some performance drawbacks (eg, power, torque) Cost??
Models for Diesel Clean-Up Boston’s Big Dig World Trade Center Clean-Up NY Ferries
Conclusions: Which Sources Should be Targeted for Clean-up? Emission inventories can help provide direction –Nonroad diesel (particularly construction) is major source of diesel PM Other factors (eg, children’s health, local “hot spots”) must play a role Clean-up technologies/fuels must be tailored to the age and type of equipment, as well as the amount of funding available.