Presentation on theme: "HRA’s, HSA’s, FSA’s… What’s The Difference? Mary Nash, CFCI, HIA, FLMI American Fidelity Assurance Company."— Presentation transcript:
HRA’s, HSA’s, FSA’s… What’s The Difference? Mary Nash, CFCI, HIA, FLMI American Fidelity Assurance Company
Acronyms CDHC - Consumer Driven Health Care Health FSA - Health Flexible Spending Arrangement HDHC - High Deductible Health Coverage HDHP - High Deductible Health Plan HRA - Health Reimbursement Arrangement HSA - Health Savings Account
Consumer Driven Health Care A way of empowering consumers to take control of their own health care and health insurance needs Encourages individuals to become actively involved in health care decisions Places many of the responsibilities of health care, usually assumed by the employer, back on the individual
What is an HRA? Mechanism to fund health care costs (CDHC) 100% Employer funded Reimburses for certain medical care expenses Is NOT a benefit offered under a Section 125 Plan Can be offered with HDHC
What is an HSA? Mechanism to fund health care costs (CDHC) Tax favored trust account Employer or Employee funded Reimburses for certain medical care expenses May or may not be offered through a Section 125 Plan Must be offered with qualified HDHP
What is a Health FSA? Mechanism to reimburse health care expenses Usually Employee funded Reimburses for certain medical care expenses Must be offered through a Section 125 Plan Does not require participation in any medical plan
So, What’s the Difference? An employer should determine what they want to accomplish with their benefit plan before they decide which reimbursement account they offer to their employees. Although they appear similar on the surface, each account is designed to achieve different results. Let’s look at some of the design differences...
Who is Eligible to Participate? HRA - Any employee that meets the employer’s eligibility requirements. HSA - Any individual who is covered by a qualified HDHP; is not covered by a non- HDHP (with certain exceptions for preventative care, permitted coverage, and permitted insurance); who is not entitled to Medicare; and is not a tax dependent. Health FSA -Any employee that meets the employer’s eligibility requirements for the 125 Plan.
Eligible Under a Section 125 (Cafeteria) Plan? HRA - HDHC inside or outside of cafeteria plan; HRA is not eligible under cafeteria plan (employer contributions). HSA - Qualified HDHP and/or HSA contribution can be under cafeteria plan OR can be outside of cafeteria plan. Health FSA - Must be under cafeteria plan.
Who Can Contribute? HRA - Must be 100% employer funded. No contributions can be made by the employee. HSA -Anyone can contribute to an individual’s HSA account. Gift taxes may apply. Health FSA - Usually employee funded, but can be employer funded or combination of both.
Are There Limitations on the Amount Contributed? HRA - No, the employer determines how much to contribute. Cannot be directly or indirectly funded by cafeteria plan. HSA -Yes, the IRS determines how much can be contributed for a tax year (indexed annually). Health FSA - No, the employer determines how much to contribute.
Does the Employer Have to Fund the Account? HRA - No, the employer can credit the employee’s account any time during the year. HSA -Yes, the employer must fund the account monthly or pre-fund the account. Health FSA - Yes, if the employer is making a contribution to the account, it must fund it during the plan year. Can be pre-funded.
Does Full Annual Election Have to be Available (Uniform Coverage Rule)? HRA - No. HSA -No. Health FSA - Yes.
What Expenses Can be Reimbursed? HRA - 213(d) medical expenses, LTC premiums, and accident/health coverage. No non-medical expenses. HSA - 213(d) medical expenses; LTC premiums, health insurance premium while on COBRA, receiving unemployment compensation or is over age 65; and non- medical expenses subject to taxes and 10% excise tax. Can be used as retirement supplement. Health FSA - 213(d) medical expenses. No premiums. No non-medical expenses.
Can the Employer Restrict What Expenses are Reimbursed? HRA - Yes. HSA - No. Health FSA - Yes.
Is Expense Substantiation (Receipts) Required? HRA - Yes. Substantiation (copy) must be submitted to provider for reimbursement. HSA - No. Substantiation must be maintained by individual for tax purposes. Health FSA - Yes. Substantiation (copy) must be submitted to provider for reimbursement.
Do Claims Have to be Adjudicated by Third Party? HRA - Yes. HSA - No. Health FSA - Yes.
Do Claims Have to be Incurred During Current Period of Coverage? HRA - Yes, with the exception of insufficient HRA balances. HSA - No, expenses must have incurred after HSA account established. Health FSA - Yes, including grace period.
Are Rollovers Allowed? HRA - Yes, if employer allows. Is not required. HSA - Yes, must be allowed. Health FSA - No, with grace period exception.
Any Special Health Insurance Required? HRA - No, employer can offer with HDHC or as stand-alone plan. HSA - Yes, must be offered with qualified HDHP. Health FSA - No, can be offered with any or no health insurance.
Can Individual Participate in More Than One at Same Time? HRA - Can participate in HRA and FSA. Can participate in HSA if HRA is limited. HSA - Cannot have general purpose FSA or HRA and HSA. Must have limited FSA or HRA. Health FSA - Can participate in FSA and HRA. Can participate in HSA if FSA is limited.
Can Mid-Year Election Changes be Made? HRA - Yes, this is not part of the 125 plan so it does not have to follow rules. If the HDHC is under 125, then the 125 rules would apply to that benefit. HSA - Yes, eligibility is determined monthly so changes can be made at any time. If the HDHP is under 125, then the 125 rules would apply to that benefit. Health FSA - No, unless for a qualified election change event.
Can Account be Spent Down After Termination? HRA - Yes, if employer allows. COBRA may apply. HSA - Yes, must be allowed. Health FSA - No, unless COBRA is elected.