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MOOD DISORDERS AND SCHIZOPHRENIA Ch. 9 & 11. Symptoms of Depression Cognitive Poor concentration, indecisiveness, poor self-esteem, hopelessness, suicidal.

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Presentation on theme: "MOOD DISORDERS AND SCHIZOPHRENIA Ch. 9 & 11. Symptoms of Depression Cognitive Poor concentration, indecisiveness, poor self-esteem, hopelessness, suicidal."— Presentation transcript:


2 Symptoms of Depression Cognitive Poor concentration, indecisiveness, poor self-esteem, hopelessness, suicidal thoughts, delusions Physiological and Behavioral Sleep or appetite disturbances, psychomotor problems, catatonia, fatigue, loss of memory Emotional Sadness, depressed mood, anhedonia (loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities), irritability

3 Major DepressionDysthymic Disorder 5 or more symptoms including sadness or loss of interest or pleasure 3 or more symptoms including depressed mood At least 2 weeks in duration At least 2 years in duration Number of symptoms Duration

4 Subtypes of Depression  w/Melancholic features  w/Psychotic features  w/Seasonal patterns  w/Catatonic features  w/Atypical features  w/Postpartum onset Andrea Yates

5 Prevalence and Prognosis Among adults, 15-to-24-year olds are most likely to have had a major depressive episode in the past month. Depression is less common among children than among adults. Depression may be most likely to leave psychological and social scars if it occurs initially during childhood, rather than during adulthood

6 Age Differences in Depression Age (in years) Percent with major depression in last month

7 Biological Theories  Genetic  Neurotransmitter  Neurophysiological abnormalities  Neuroendocrine abnormalities

8 Risk of Bipolar Disorder Percent with bipolar disorder

9 Bipolar Disorder  Bipolar I vs. Bipolar II  Bipolar I – depression & mania  Bipolar II – depression & hypomania  Cyclothymic Disorder Living with Bipolar Disorder

10 Psychological Theories of Mood Disorders Behavioral Theories Lewinsohn’s theory Learned helplessness theory Cognitive Theories Aaron Beck’s Theory Psychodynamic Theory Introjected hostility Dependency on others’ evaluations

11 Social Perspectives  The Cohort Effect  Social Status  Cross-Cultural Differences

12 Biological Treatments  Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)  Light Therapy  Drug treatments  Lithium, antipsychotics (Bipolar Disorder)  Antidepressants Tricyclic SSRIs MAOIs

13 Psychological Treatments for Depression Behavioral Therapy Increase positive reinforcers and decrease aversive events by teaching the person new skills for managing interpersonal situations and the environment Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Challenge distorted thinking and help the person learn more adaptive ways of thinking and new behavioral skills Psychodynamic Therapy Help the person gain insight to unconscious hostility and fears of abandonment to facilitate change in self-concept and behaviors

14 Schizophrenia  Positive Symptoms: Type 1  Delusions Persecutory Delusion of Reference Grandiose Delusions  Hallucinations  Disorganized Thought and Speech  Disorganized or Catatonic Behavior

15 Schizophrenia  Negative Symptoms: Type II  Affective Flattening  Alogia  Avolition

16 DSM-IV Criteria for Schizophrenia  A. Core symptoms: two or more of the following present for at least a 1-month period 1. Delusions 2. Hallucinations 3. Disorganized speech 4. Grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior 5. Negative symptoms

17 DSM-IV Criteria for Schizophrenia, continued  B. Social/occupational functioning: significant impairment in work, academic performance, interpersonal relationships, and/or self-care  C. Duration: continuous signs of the disturbance for at least 6 months; at least 1 month of this period must include symptoms that meet Criterion A.

18 DSM IV Criteria for Schizoaffective Disorder A.An uninterrupted period of illness during which, at some time, there is either a major depressive episode, a manic episode, or a mixed episode concurrent with symptoms that meet Criterion A for schizophrenia.

19 DSM IV Criteria for Schizoaffective Disorder, continued  B. During the same period of illness, there have been delusions or hallucinations for at least 2 weeks in the absence of prominent mood symptoms.  C. Symptoms that meet criteria for a mood episode are present for a substantial portion of the total duration of the active and residual periods of the illness

20 Prognosis of Schizophrenia  Age and Gender Factors  Sociocultural Factors

21 Biological Theories of Schizophrenia  Genetic Theories  Structural Brain Abnormalities  Birth Complications & Prenatal Viral Exposure  Neurotransmitter Theories

22 Schizophrenia – Ventricle Abnormalities

23 Treatments for Schizophrenia  Biological Treatments  Behavioral, Cognitive and Social Interventions  Cross-Cultural Treatments

24 Theories of Schizophrenia Psychological Theories Controlling parents, schizophrenogenic mothers (scientific scrutiny of this theory) Sociocultural Perspectives Impact of stressful social situations, environmental conditions Family Interactions and Schizophrenia Family communication theories, communication deviance, expressed emotion Stress and Schizophrenia Rare that anyone would experience full-blown schizophrenia in response to a stressful event. Still, it is more likely that those with schizophrenia may live in a more stressful environment

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