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The End of the Roman Republic: From Tiberius to Caesar 133 BCE – 44 BCE.

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Presentation on theme: "The End of the Roman Republic: From Tiberius to Caesar 133 BCE – 44 BCE."— Presentation transcript:

1 The End of the Roman Republic: From Tiberius to Caesar 133 BCE – 44 BCE



4 TIBERIUS GRACCHUS (c.168 -133 BCE ) & GAIUS GRACCHUS (c.159 -121 BCE ) What was the land reform Tiberius advocated? Why did he want it?

5 Tiberius Gracchus, Tribune in133 BCE >Enforce an old law limiting latifundia-estates to 500 acres... >Sell/rent public lands to the poor > Distribute lands of deceased king of Pergamum to the poor/ soldiers > wealthy landowners provoked a riot claiming Tiberius intended to make himself king! > Tiberius was clubbed to death **-1 st time ever that a tribune was attacked and killed.

6 Gaius Gracchus, tribune in 123 BCE Resurrected brother’s land reform plans Give colonial lands to retired soldiers Establish price controls- cheap grain subsidized by the government Initiate public works projects Extend citizenship

7 The beginning of the end… After the Gracchus Brothers, the next 100 years was dominated by a series of rival generals, representing the two political parties, who engulfed Rome in civil wars, using their troops as personal possessions to further their own political ambitions, undermining the constitution, and leading to the collapse of the Republic.

8 The first civil war: Populares vs Optimates Gaius Marius Lucius Sulla

9 Gaius Marius 157-86 BCE (the Populares) >Defeated a Germanic force of 300,000 (The Cimbri, and Teutones) >Enlisted landless poor into his army, supplied them and rewarded them with his own money- loyalty of soldiers was to him. >The army, no longer an instrument of the government, became a private possession of generals

10 Sulla the conservative 138-78 BCE, (the Optimates) ***Marched his army through the gates of Rome and declared himself dictator. Increased Senate to 600 Restored Senate veto over plebeian assembly Forbid tribunes from offering legislation not approved by the Senate Denied Tribunes any other office Set minimum age to hold office at 42

11 2 nd Civil War 49-46 BCE – Caesar (the Populares) vs Pompey (the Optimates)

12 Gnaeus Pompeii 106-48 BCE Gained recognition in Spain, 77 BC then during the slave revolt of Spartacus (73-71 BC). He joined with Marcus Crassus, the richest man in Rome, -they marched to the gates of Rome and demanded consulships (Pompey was 36!) As Consuls, they canceled Sulla’s “reforms” and retired.

13 Pompey returns... In 67 BCE, the Senate asked Pompey to deal with Pirates in the Med Sea and renewed fighting with King Mithradates Returning in 62 BCE, Pompey asked for land grants to his soldiers, which was rejected by the Senate. Such shortsightedness drove Pompey into an alliance with Julius Caesar.

14 Julius Caesar, 100-44 BCE Hi s uncle was Gaius Marius Dad died when 15 At 17- married Cornelius Cinna’s daughter At 18- Sulla proscribed his death! 20- Roman soldier in Bythnia 21- lawyer in Rome 22- Set out to Rhodes Career: held various administrative posts At 38 – appointed governor of Spain

15 Governor of Spain, returned to Rome in 60 BC- intending to run for consul-Senate said no! Teamed up with Pompey and Crassus to form the 1st Triumverate and became a consul in 60 BCE After his term as consul, he took governorship over two northern territories (Gaul) and initiated the Gallic Wars Legacy: brought western Europe into the mainstream of civilization

16 Caesar’s Gallic Wars, 58 – 52 BCE Caesar’s victories over the Gauls (Celts) were incredible… sending back to Rome untold wealth from plunder and almost one million slaves with another million counted as dead. (#’s are debatable!)

17 “Crossing the Rubicon” Fearing his rising power and popularity, the Senate recalled Caesar… without his army! When Caesar crossed the Rubicon river in 49 BCE, he started a civil war. Pompey was convinced by Senate leaders to come out of retirement and defend the Senate

18 2 nd Civil War 49-46 BCE – Caesar (the Populares) vs Pompey (the Optimates)

19 Caesar defeated Pompey- Battle of Pharsalus (48 BCE) then followed him to Egypt where Pompey hoped for allies.

20 After Pharsalus, Pompey escaped to Egypt with Caesar chasing him only to be assassinated.

21 Caesar & Cleopatra Egypt was already involved in its own civil war between Cleopatra and her younger brother. Caesar restored Cleopatra to power, “gave” her a son (Caesarion), then returned with her to Rome in 46 BCE


23 Caesar: “dictator for life” Pardoned Senators but raised members to 900 Gave public land to his soldiers and the poor Granted citizenship to provinces Raised pay of soldiers Reorganized town governments and the courts Lowered taxes on provinces Started building projects

24 Caesar’s assassination... March 15, 44 BCE 23 stab wounds led by Brutus and Cassius, two long- time friends. Marc Antony joined with Octavian and Lepidus to create the 2 nd Triumverate and defeat the conspirators. Problem: Both Antony and Octavian wanted to be number 1

25 Any questions?

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