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Literary Terms.

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Presentation on theme: "Literary Terms."— Presentation transcript:

1 Literary Terms

2 Rhyme Identical or very similar final sounds in words usually at the end of lines of a poem

3 Rhyme – “Twas the Night Before Christmas”
Clement Clark Moore writes his entire poem in rhyming couplets! Twas the night before Christmas, when all through the house Not a creature was stirring, not even a mouse. The stockins were hung by the chimney with care, In hopes that St Nicholas soon would be there.

4 Rhyme – Romeo and Juliet
William Shakespeare ends the play with a heroic couplet! For never was a story of more woe Than this of Juliet and her Romeo.

5 Rhyme – “Richard Cory” Edwin Arlington Robinson uses an ABAB rhyme scheme in his poem! Whenever Richard Cory went down town We people on the pavement looked at him: He was a gentleman from sole to crown, Clean favored, and imperially slim.

6 Rhyme - “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening”
In his poem, Robert Frost chooses an AABA rhyme scheme! Whose woods these are I think I know, His house is in the village though. He will not see me stopping here, To watch his woods fill up with snow.

7 Rhyme – “Humpty Dumpty”
We learn to recognize rhyme as infants and toddlers through nursery rhymes! Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall, Humpty Dumpty had a great fall. All the King's horses, And all the King's men Couldn't put Humpty together again!

8 Rhyme – Feminine rhyme These words are more than one syllable, which makes the rhyme a bit weaker. A woman's face with Nature's own hand painted Hast thou, the master-mistress of my passion; A woman's gentle heart, but not acquainted With shifting change, as is false women's fashion

9 Cause and Effect Cause statements stem from actions and events, and effects are what happen as a result of the event of action

10 Cause and Effect The boy kicked the ball. The girl teased the cat.
Sally studied hard for a test. Joe became really tired. The ball rolled. The cat growled. Sally earned an A on her test. Joe went to sleep early.

11 Cause and Effect Paragraph
In recent decades, cities have grown so large (effect) that now about 50% of the Earth's population lives in urban areas. There are several reasons for this occurrence. First, the increasing industrialization of the nineteenth century resulted in the creation of many factory jobs (cause), which tended to be located in cities. These jobs, with their promise of a better material life, attracted many people from rural areas. Second, there were many schools established to educate the children of the new factory laborers (cause). The promise of a better education persuaded many families to leave farming communities and move to the cities. Finally, as the cities grew, people established places of leisure, entertainment, and culture, such as sports stadiums, theaters, and museums. For many people, these facilities made city life appear more interesting than life on the farm (cause), and therefore drew them away from rural communities.

12 Cause and Effect Chart

13 Cause and Effect Chart Battery Bulb

14 Expository Text Text written to explain and convey information about a specific topic; contrasts with narrative text

15 Expository Text - Description
The Olympic symbol consists of five interlocking rings. The rings represent the five continents - Africa, Asia, Europe, North America and South America - from which athletes come to compete in the games. The rings are colored black blue, green, red, and yellow. At least one of these colors is found in the flag of every country sending athletes to compete in the Olympic games.

16 Expository Text – Chronological Order
The Olympic games began as athletic festivals to honor the Greek gods. The most important festival was held in the valley of Olympia to honor Zeus, the king of the gods. It was this festival that became the Olympic games in 776 B.C. These games were ended in A.D. 394 by the Roman Emperor who ruled Greece. No Olympic games were held for more than 1,500 years. Then the modern Olympics began in Almost 300 male athletes competed in the first modern Olympics In the games held in 1900, female athletes were allowed to compete. The games have continued every four years since 1896 except during World War II, and they will most likely continue for many years to come.

17 Expository Text – Comparison/Contrast
The modern Olympics is very unlike the ancient Olympic games. Individual events are different. While there were no swimming races in the ancient games, for example, there were chariot races. There were no female contestants and all athletes competed in the nude. Of course, the ancient and modern Olympics are also alike in many ways. Some events, such as the javelin and discus throws, are the same. Some people say that cheating, professionalism, and nationalism in the modern games are a disgrace to the Olympic tradition. But according to the ancient Greek writers, there were many cases of cheating, nationalism, and professionalism in their Olympics too.

18 Expository Text – Cause and Effect
There are several reasons why so many people attend the Olympic games or watch them on television. One reason is tradition. The name Olympics and the torch and flame remind people of the ancient games. People can escape the ordinariness of daily life by attending or watching the Olympics. They like to identify with someone else's individual sacrifice and accomplishment. National pride is another reason, and an athlete's or a team's hard earned victory becomes a nation's victory. There are national medal counts and people keep track of how many medals their country's athletes have won.

19 Expository Text – Problem/Solution
One problem with the modern Olympics is that it has become very big and expensive to operate. The city or country that hosts the games often loses a lot of money. A stadium, pools, and playing fields must be built for the athletic events and housing is needed for the athletes who come from around the world. And all of these facilities are used for only 2 weeks! In 1984, Los Angeles solved these problems by charging a fee for companies who wanted to be official sponsors of the games. Companies like McDonald's paid a lot of money to be part of the Olympics. Many buildings that were already built in the Los Angeles area were also used. The Coliseum where the 1932 games were held was used again and many colleges and universities in the area became playing and living sites.

20 Expository Text Paragraph
One reason I hate mosquitoes is because they are so annoying while I am outside. For example, whenever we have cookouts, they want to swarm all around the food. Also, when I go fishing with my Dad, we always have to wear bug spray. The bug spray always stinks to high heaven! Then, if you do not want to use bug spray, the only other way to get them to leave you alone is to wear long sleeves. Yet, who wants to wear long sleeves when it is hot outside? Nothing ruins your day like bloodsucking mosquitoes.

21 Public Document A document that focuses on civic issues or matters of public safety at the community level and beyond

22 Public Documents Adoption registries Birth records
Marriage/Divorce records Business/people-finder directories Phone directories Criminal records Missing persons Most wanted persons

23 Conventions of Language
Mechanics, usage, and sentence completeness

24 Conventions of Language – Sentence Completeness
Parts of speech Parts of a sentence Phrases Clauses Fragments/Run-ons

25 Conventions of Language - Usage
Subject/verb agreement Pronoun/antecedent agreement Verb tense Modifiers

26 Conventions of Language - Mechanics
Capitalization Punctuation Spelling Words often confused

27 Folktales A story originating in the oral tradition that falls into a variety of categories, including legends, ghost stories, fairy tales, fables, and anecdotes based on historical figures and events

28 Folktales Pecos Bill Johnny Appleseed Grimm’s Fairy Tales
Aesop’s Fables Chicken Little The Legend of King Arthur Heroes and Villains Urban Legends – find one

29 Allusion An implied or indirect reference in literature to a familiar person, place, or event

30 Allusions - Obama "I was not born in a manger. I was actually born on Krypton and sent here by my father, Jor-el, to save the Planet Earth." (Senator Barack Obama, speech at a fund-raiser for Catholic charities, October 16, 2008) "Senator Obama's call to 'ask not just what our government can do for us, but what we can do for ourselves' had an even more direct connection to the inaugural address of the first G.I. Generation president of the United States." (Morley Winograd and Michael D. Hais, Millennial Makeover, Rutgers University Press, 2008)

31 Allusions "As the cave's roof collapsed, he was swallowed up in the dust like Jonah, and only his frantic scrabbling behind a wall of rock indicated that there was anyone still alive". "Christy didn't like to spend money. She was no Scrooge, but she seldom purchased anything except the bare necessities". "Like the prodigal son, he returned to his home town and was welcomed by all who knew him". "Marty's presence at the dance was definitely a 'Catch 22' situation; if he talked to Cindy she'd be mad at him, but if he ignored her there'd be hell to pay. His anger bubbled to the surface. He realized that by coming to the dance he had brought his problems with him like a Trojan Horse, and he could only hope he would be able to keep them bottled up".

32 Allusions - Assignment
Hamlet was a character from Shakespeare who had a difficulty making a decision. Falstaff was another of Shakespeare's characters who was a large jovial man with a keen wit. The Three Stooges were a comedy team of not-too-bright buffoons. Benedict Arnold was an American traitor. The 'cowardly lion' from the Wizard of Oz was a coward. Judas betrayed Jesus. Mother Teresa was a nun who selflessly devoted her life to caring for the poor and sick. Don Quixote was a fictional hero; a dreamer who was always going on quests to try to accomplish impossible tasks. Your assignment is to write a few sentences or a short paragraph (or poem) that contain an allusion to three of the characters above.

33 Literary Devices Tools used by an author to enliven and provide voice to the writing

34 Literary Devices – write an example illustrating each of the following techniques
Metaphor and simile. Personification. Symbolism. Irony. Hyperbole Rhythm and meter. Rhyme. Assonance. Alliteration. Repetition. Onomatopoeia.

35 Imagery A word or group of words in a literary work which appeal to one or more of the senses; figurative language

36 Imagery – Paragraph As the last seconds ticked down, the fans gripped their chilled drinks in anticipation. After the clock hit zero, the yellow and black suits stormed the green beaten field. They cried in excitement and exhaustion while they hugged teammates. From the sky red, blue, and white streamers danced down through the gentle smoke from the fireworks. The headcoach was showered with freezing cold Gatorade that soaked every inch of his body and ran into his mouth and greeted him with sweetness. The look on his face was proud as he was clearly in disbelief that this happened to him-yes, he won the Superbowl.

37 After Apple Picking – Robert Frost
My long two-pointed ladder's sticking through a tree Toward heaven still, And there's a barrel that I didn't fill Beside it, and there may be two or three Apples I didn't pick upon some bough. But I am done with apple-picking now. Essence of winter sleep is on the night, The scent of apples: I am drowsing off. I cannot rub the strangeness from my sight I got from looking through a pane of glass I skimmed this morning from the drinking trough And held against the world of hoary grass. It melted, and I let it fall and break. But I was well Upon my way to sleep before it fell, And I could tell What form my dreaming was about to take. Magnified apples appear and disappear, Stem end and blossom end, And every fleck of russet showing clear. My instep arch not only keeps the ache, It keeps the pressure of a ladder-round. I feel the ladder sway as the boughs bend. And I keep hearing from the cellar bin The rumbling sound Of load on load of apples coming in. For I have had too much Of apple-picking: I am overtired Of the great harvest I myself desired. There were ten thousand thousand fruit to touch, Cherish in hand, lift down, and not let fall. For all That struck the earth, No matter if not bruised or spiked with stubble, Went surely to the cider-apple heap As of no worth. One can see what will trouble This sleep of mine, whatever sleep it is. Were he not gone, The woodchuck could say whether it's like his Long sleep, as I describe its coming on, Or just some human sleep.

38 Types of Imagery Visual – sight Auditory – sound Olfactory – smell
Gustatory – taste Tactile – touch Organic – internal sensation (hunger, fear) Kinesthetic – movement If you had to give up one of your senses, which would you choose and why? (40-50 words)

39 Visual imagery - something seen in the mind's eye
After Apple-Picking - magnified apples appear and disappear...every fleck of russet showing clear Once by the Pacific - the clouds were low and locks blown forward in the gleam of eyes. Birches - the iced branches shed "crystal shells" October - Enchant the land with amethyst Good Hours - the cottages up to their shining eyes in snow

40 Auditory imagery - represents a sound
After Apple-Picking - the rumbling .. of load on load of apples coming in. Mowing - the scythe whispering to the ground The Runaway - the miniature thunder... the clatter of stone An Old Man's Winter Night - the roar of trees, the crack of branches, beating on a box Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening - the sweep of easy wind and downy flake

41 Olfactory imagery - smell
After Apple-Picking - Essence of winter sleep in on the night, the scent of apples Note: just the mention of "the scent of apples" does not make it an image, but when connected to "essence of winter sleep" the scent gains vividness. To Earthward - musk from hidden grapevine springs Out, Out - the sticks of wood "sweet scented stuff" Unharvested - A scent of ripeness from over a wall...smelling the sweetness in no theft. To a Young Wretch - the boy takes the tree and heads home, "smelling green"

42 Gustatory imagery - taste
After Apple-Picking - although not specifically mentioned, the taste of the apples is implied To Earthward - I craved strong sweets no joy but lacks salt Blueberries - the blueberries as big as your thumb...with the flavor of soot A Record Stride - the walking boots that taste of Atlantic and Pacific salt The Exposed Nest - A haying machine passes over a bird nest without "tasting flesh"

43 Tactile imagery - touch
After Apple-Picking - the fruit to "Cherish in hand" Moon Compasses - "So love will take between the hands a face.." The Death of the Hired Man - Mary touches the harplike morning-glory strings and plays some tenderness. The Witch of Coos - the bed linens might just as well be ice and the clothes snow On Going Unnoticed - You grasp the bark by a rugged pleat,/ And look up small from the forest's feet.

44 Organic imagery - internal sensation: hunger, thirst, fatigue, fear
After Apple-Picking - My instep arch not only keeps the ache, It keeps the pressure of a ladder round Storm Fear - My heart owns a doubt, It costs no inward struggle not to go Birches - It's when I'm weary of considerations/ And life is too much like a pathless wood, etc The White-Tailed Hornet - "To stab me in the sneeze-nerve of a nostril" Spring Pools - the trees drinking up the pools and along with it, the flowers

45 Kinesthetic imagery - movement or tension
After Apple-Picking - "I feel the ladder sway as the boughs bend." Bereft - Leaves got up in a coil and hissed,/ Blindly struck at my knee and missed. Ghost House - the black bats tumble and dart A Late Walk - the whir of sober birds, is sadder than any words Once by the Pacific: "Shattered water ...Great waves looked over others coming in,"

46 Paraphrase Restate text or passage in other words, often to clarify meaning or understanding

47 Paraphrase Original: Developing complex skills in the classroom involves the key ingredients identified in teaching pigeons to play ping-pong and to bowl. The key ingredients are: (1) inducing a response, (2) reinforcing subtle improvements or refinements in the behavior, (3) providing for the transfer of stimulus control by gradually withdrawing the prompts or cues, and (4) scheduling reinforcements so that the ratio of reinforcements in responses gradually increases and natural reinforcers can maintain their behavior. Paraphrase: According to Gredler (2001), the same factors apply to developing complex skills in a classroom setting as to developing complex skills in any setting. A response must be induced, then reinforced as it gets closer to the desired behavior. Reinforcers have to be scheduled carefully, and cues have to be withdrawn gradually so that the new behaviors can be transferred and maintained.

48 Paraphrase Original: However, although humans are comparatively poor sprinters, they also engage in a different type of running, endurance running (ER), defined as running many kilometres over extended time periods using aerobic metabolism. Paraphrase: Having limited success in sprinting compared to other mammals, humans perform better in endurance running, which is a form of aerobic running over extended distances and periods of time (Bramble).

49 Paraphrase Original: In The Sopranos, the mob is besieged as much by inner infidelity as it is by the federal government. Early in the series, the greatest threat to Tony's Family is his own biological family. One of his closest associates turns witness for the FBI, his mother colludes with his uncle to contract a hit on Tony, and his kids click through Web sites that track the federal crackdown in Tony's gangland. Paraphrase: In the first season of The Sopranos, Tony Soprano’s mobster activities are more threatened by members of his biological family than by agents of the federal government. This familial betrayal is multi-pronged. Tony’s closest friend and associate is an FBI informant, his mother and uncle are conspiring to have him killed, and his children are surfing the Web for information about his activities (Fields).

50 Validity Refers to statements that have the appearance of truth or reality

51 Validity – Deductive Reasoning
An argument is deductively valid if, whenever all premises are true, the conclusion is also necessarily true. All men are mortal: Socrates is a man: Therefore, Socrates is mortal.

52 Validity – Formal An argument is formally valid if its form is one such that for each interpretation under which the premises are all true also the conclusion is true. If no god is mortal, then no mortal is a god.

53 Validity – Not Truth One thing we should note is that the validity of deduction is not at all affected by the truth of the premise or the truth of the conclusion. The following deduction is perfectly valid: All fire-breathing rabbits live on Mars All humans are fire-breathing rabbits Therefore all humans live on Mars

54 Context Clues Information from the reading that identifies or defines a word or group of words

55 Context Clues – Examples
The professor was a favorite among the students at the college. His sagacity was helpful to them as they pursued their degrees. The professor was known to use his experience, insight, and common sense to help students pursue their education. Using the example clue, the word sagacity in this sentence means   silliness   thoughtlessness   wisdom   negligence

56 Context Clues – Explanations
Katie appeared infallible in math class because she had never gotten a problem wrong. Using the explanation clue, the word infallible in this sentence means   never wrong   mistaken   wrong   incorrect

57 Context Clues – Synonyms
The man was sent to the penitentiary, or prison, for stealing cars. Using the synonym clue, the word penitentiary in this sentence means   paradise   hotel   prison   heaven

58 Context Clues – Antonyms
While Lily was careful not to be seen as she peeked out the window, Phil was not as cautious and was seen! Using the antonym clue, the word cautious in this sentence means   careful   not careful   risky   trouble

59 Context Clues – Comparisons
The mother was determined to prove her son's innocence; the father was resolute as well. Using the comparison clue, the word resolute in this sentence means   wavering   determined   not determined   unsure

60 Context Clues – Contrasts
After being ill and unable to eat for three days, Beverly had a voracious appetite. Using the contrast clue, the word voracious in this sentence means   satisfied   quenched   small   big

61 Context Clues – Assignment
Write a sentence using each of the methods of context clues Example Explanation Synonym Antonym Comparison Contrast

62 Phonics The relationship between letters and sounds fundamental in beginning reading

63 Phonics sh in ship, shape, shine, shop
th in this, through, thin, thorough ti in nation, partial, attention

64 Phonics Guidelines 1. Sometimes the rules don't work Every syllable in every word must have a vowel "C" followed by "e, i or y" usually has the soft sound of "s". "cyst", "central", and "city" "G" followed by "e, i or y" usually has the soft sound of "j". "gem", "gym", “gist” 5. When 2 consonants are joined together and form one new sound, they are a consonant digraph. "ch,sh,th,ph and wh" When a syllable ends in a consonant and has only one vowel, that vowel is short. "fat, bed, fish, spot, luck" When a syllable ends in a silent "e", the silent "e" is a signal that the vowel in front of it is long. "make, gene, kite, rope, and use" When a syllable has 2 vowels together, the first vowel is usually long and the second is silent. "pain, eat, boat, res/cue, say, grow". 9. When a syllable ends in any vowel and is the only vowel, that vowel is usually long. "pa/per, me, I, o/pen, u/nit, and my" When a vowel is followed by an "r" in the same syllable, that vowel is "r-controlled". "R-controlled "er,ir,and ur" often sound the same (like "er"). "term, sir, fir, fur, far, for, su/gar, or/der".

65 Phonics Instruction – Sequence (2nd grade)
Consonants (soft c, soft g)    Consonant clusters (spl, spr, scr, thr, shr, squ, sch)     Consonant digraphs (ph, -tch, -dge)     Long vowel patterns (a, ay, ea, ee, ey, ei, ie, oa, oe)    R-controlled (er, ir, ur, ar, or, air)     /Y/ at end of words (y=i [fry]; y=e [funny])    Vowel diphthongs (/ou/, /ow/, /oy/, /oi/ )     Silent consonants (knee, write, quick)    Begin multisyllabic words (open & closed syllables) (donut)    Prefixes; suffixes (un-, re-, pre-; -er, -est, -tion)    Homophones (to, too, two; there, their, they're)    

66 Problem/Solution An organizational structure in nonfiction texts, where the author typically presents a problem and possible solutions to it

67 Problem/Solution Structure
In problem-solution you argue that there is a explain it...give proof to it!  You must show a need. Who is involved, how widespread is it?  How long has it existed, where, when, etc.  Give details to prove it.  Not only that, show us how WE are involved in the problem...adapt to the audience to help us see that we are connected to the issue. If you can not find any way in which we are connected...then you have not narrowed the topic effectively and have not adapted to the audience in a meaningful way.  Next, give us a specific way to solve the problem.  Here you will show the plan and the practicality.  You will need to be specific.   NEVER just say "we need to educate ourselves" or "pass a law" without mentioning any specifics!!! Give proof that your solution will work. Be specific, better yet, find and cite a model solution.  Where have they passed such a law. HOW CAN WE BE INVOLVED???

68 Problem/Solution Chart

69 Problem/Solution Source: World History, Chapter 3, The Fertile Crescent, par. 3 First Sentence: The two main rivers that flow through Mesopotamia are the Tigris and the Euphrates. Topic Sentence: Little rain fell on the fertile soil of the valley between the rivers. Full text:  The two main rivers that flow through Mesopotamia are the Tigris and the Euphrates.  More than 7,000 years ago, people began to farm the land.  Little rain fell on the fertile soil of the valley between the rivers.  This meant that to keep their seedlings alive, farmers had to dig canals to bring river water to the fields.  People began to live in small villages so that they could work together to bring water to their land. Problem:  Little rain fell (explicit);  lacked rain for crops (implicit) Solution:  dig canals, work together, bring water to their land

70 Problem/Solution Source: Critical Literacy/Articles/School Issues:  How to succeed at school First Sentence: Besides, you have a secret weapon here: If you don't understand something, ask your teacher. Topic Sentence: First sentence. Full text:  Besides, you have a secret weapon here: If you don't understand something, ask your teacher. Teachers LIVE for this. And often, they will let you know in not very subtle ways just what's on that test. Instead of spending one second worrying about your grades, spend that time understanding the subject. The payoff will come--both in class and later in life. Because that's how things really work: If you don't know your stuff, you won't succeed. Problem:  You don't understand something Solution:  Ask, ask, and ask again

71 PROBLEM AND SOLUTION When he could no longer get along with his parents, he moved to his own apartment. The hurricane knocked out power lines so people resorted to using candles. Riots erupted in many cities after the news of Martin Luther King’s death.

72 Inference A judgment based on reasoning rather than an explicit statement; a conclusion based on facts and circumstances; understanding gained by “reading between the lines”

73 Types of Inferences Skilled Readers Use
Recognize the antecedents for pronouns Figure out the meaning of unknown words from context clues Figure out the grammatical function of an unknown words Understand intonation of characters’ words Identify characters’ beliefs, personalities, and motivations Understand characters’ relationships to one another Provide details about the setting Provide explanations for events or ideas that are presented in the text Offer details for events or their own explanations of the events Understand the author’s view of the world Recognize the author’s biases Relate what is happening in the text to their own knowledge of the world Offer conclusions from facts presented in the text

74 Inference Practice

75 Type of inference: Figure out the grammatical function of an unknown word
Example: In the following sentence, what part of speech will the missing word be? He drove a __________ car to work every day.

76 Type of inference: Figure out the meaning of unknown words from context clues
Example: Guess the meaning of the boldfaced word. The liquid is flammable, so do not smoke by it.

77 Type of inference: Identify characters’ beliefs, personalities, and motivations
Example: Based on the description of the rat, Templeton, from Charlotte’s Web, which detail supports the idea that he loves to eat?

78 Type of inference: Offer conclusions from facts presented in the text
Example: The food was described as round, flat, and covered in sauce. Obviously, the food is pizza.

79 Type of inference: Provide details about the setting
Example: The San Nicholas Island (the inspiration for Island of the Blue Dolphins), off the California coast, is covered in volcanic rock, coyote brush, and a few trees.

80 Type of inference: Provide explanations for events or ideas that are presented in the text
Example: Scrooge (in A Christmas Carol) may have decided to send a turkey to his employee, Bob Cratchit, because he realized that he had been wrong for being miserly and needed to be kind.

81 Type of inference: Recognize the antecedents for pronouns
Example: Who is it the word “her” refers to in the following sentence? Sara lost her keys again.

82 Type of inference: Recognize the author’s biases
Example: I don’t choose girls to be on my kickball team, because they are not very strong and they don’t try as hard as the boys.

83 Type of inference: Understand characters’ relationships to one another
Example: Because the Hardy boys are so close in age, the two brothers are dedicated to one another and never hesitate to help one another in a crisis.

84 Type of inference: Understand the tone of characters’ words
Example: Think about how the warden from Holes responds to Stanley’s discovery when she says, “Stanley, won’t you just open it? Just let me see what’s inside it, please!”

85 Inference Assignment Choose a text that we’ve read this year. Write an example of the different types of inference using this text.

86 Exaggeration To make an overstatement or stretch the truth

87 Exaggeration Factual Statement: Exaggeration:
Aesop Elementary School had many items in its lost and found box. Exaggeration: “The place looked magical—almost like Aladdin’s cave. Instead of heaps of gold and mountains of jewels, however, there were heaps of snow boots and mountains of bean bag animals.”

88 Exaggeration Factual Statement Exaggeration:
Dana, a student at Wayside School, had beautiful eyes. Exaggeration: “And if she had a hundred eyes, all over her face and her arms and her feet, why, she would have been the most beautiful creature in the world.”

89 Exaggeration in Literature
The Crucible:  Betty's illness.  People immediately start leaping to witchcraft the second one girl in town starts acting a little strange?  Once the witch card is thrown, everyone seems to lose all reason.

90 Exaggeration Poem My Dad is tougher than your dad. He wrestles alligators every morning just to get his heart pumping. Instead of eating toast and coffee for breakfast, he eats the toaster and the coffeemaker. He doesn't drive to work, he runs to work--ten miles a day. When he gets home from work he relaxes in a hot bath of boiling water. He prefers chewing nails to chewing gum. And when he sees someone for the first time, he says "Hello, nice to meet you," so loud and fearsome people run away and hide. My dad is tougher than your dad Bruce Lansky

91 Exaggeration Assignment
Directions: Write an example of exaggeration for each factual statement. The book was funny. Paige Turner liked being a librarian. Mr. Jupiter enjoyed reading to his students. Mrs. Gorf was a mean teacher. Myron was a good class president.

92 Focus The center of interest or attention

93 Focus - Instructions This has to do with not getting off the subject, not bringing in material that is irrelevant. You might think of this in terms of focusing a camera: you want to get a picture of something in particular, with perhaps a little background or context, and you want the details to be sharp. Problems with focus often originate in the planning stage of writing, so if you have trouble with this you might try outlining or taking notes to clarify for yourself what you should include.

94 Focus - Sentences Unfocused: Too many people treat animals badly in experiments. Focused: The cosmetic industry often harms animals in unnecessary experiments designed to test their products. Unfocused: Grades are an unfair pain in the neck. Focused: Course grades based solely on one term paper don't accurately measure a student's knowledge on a subject. Unfocused: Getting the right job is important and can lead to rewarding experiences. Focused: Getting the right job can lead to an improved sense of self-esteem. Unfocused: The Fourth of July picnic was a big success. Focused: Everyone at the Fourth of July picnic ate well, enjoyed the swimming pool, and had a chance to chat with old friends.

95 Focus – Paragraphs Weak Example: When I first brought my cat home from the humane society she was a mangy, pitiful animal. It cost a lot to adopt her: forty dollars. And then I had to buy litter, a litterbox, food, and dishes for her to eat out of. Two days after she came home with me she got taken to the pound by the animal warden. There's a leash law for cats in Fort Collins. If they're not in your yard they have to be on a leash. Anyway, my cat is my best friend. I'm glad I got her. She sleeps under the covers with me when it's cold. Sometimes she meows a lot in the middle of the night and wakes me up, though. Strong Example:When I first brought my cat home from the Humane Society she was a mangy, pitiful animal. She was so thin that you could count her vertebrae just by looking at her. Apparently she was declawed by her previous owners, then abandoned or lost. Since she couldn't hunt, she nearly starved. Not only that, but she had an abscess on one hip. The vets at the Humane Society had drained it, but it was still scabby and without fur. She had a terrible cold, too. She was sneezing and sniffling and her meow was just a hoarse squeak. And she'd lost half her tail somewhere. Instead of tapering gracefully, it had a bony knob at the end.

96 Focus – Task Narrate a single remembered incident and tell why it was (is still) important to writer.

97 Focus – Essay brothers basketball game at North High School. Before my
My most memorable experience was when I was going to my brothers basketball game at North High School. Before my brothers game the girl varsity were playing and at half time we were losing by 3. When all the girls were going into the locker room there was this man that came out in the middle of the court. He said anyone that wants a chance to win a hundred dollars that you had to pay a dollar and then you had to shoot a foul shot and if you hit it you would shoot a three pointer and if you hit that you would get to shoot a half court shot in the boys varsity game and if you hit that you win a hundred dollars.

98 Focus – Essay cont. I went up to the man and gave him my dollar and I got a basketball and I shot the free throw and I hit it when I was at the three point line and shot it and it rolled around the goal three times and finally just dropped strait in. I could’nt belive it I was going to have a chance to win a hundred dollars. I went running back up the bleachers where my dad and sister was setting there just smiling like a lion. When it shows it’s teeth. I went over in the front of the gym pacing back and forth say I can do it. Everybody had confidence for me on East side but North didn’t even think about me hitting it. At the end of the girls game the score was North 50 and East 47. Then it was the boy varsity game I was even more nervous.

99 Focus – Essay cont. Before the boys halftime I went and got me a drink. After that the buzzard went off for halftime to start. The man said everyone that hit your shots to come to the middle of the court. There were six people counting me. I was so nervous my legs were shaking. This older guy about 20 tried to make me shoot first but I said No way hosae. So then we all got in line I was

100 Focus – Essay cont. in the very back showing fingers. The first guy that shot airballed, it the second person hit the backboard, the third person airballed, it the forth person hit the backboard, the fifth person hit the rim, and the sixth person was me I got a turn and go and threw it up it went straight in nothing but net. Everyone screamed and hollered because no one really through the youngest one would hit it after everyone else had missed it. The man took me back in the room and gave me exactly $ That’s the most memorable experience I have ever had in my hole life, well so far any how.

101 Focus – Essay – Analysis
The writer establishes a clear focus, and the paper progresses to a climactic ending. The writer remains focused on the $ basketball shot throughout the piece.

102 Focus – Essay 2 One thing that happened in my life that I will never forget is my 5th grade teacher Mrs. Bourne. She was kind, funny, and cool. I will never forget her because she would let us stay outside longer, didn’t give homework, and took my friends and I places when we got good grades. When she let us stay outside longer she would play 4-square alot with us. Sometimes she would even bring her camera and let us make movies. But the best thing of all was she would play soccer, and she wasn’t that bad! The one thing she said at the begeming of the year was that she wouldn’t give alot of homework.

103 Focus – Essay 2 We did most of the work in class so we didn’t have much homework. She made us study hard and long, but it was wuerth it. The only homework she would give was a few math problems. The last thing is that when we got good grades on tests all month she would take the ones that did this and go somewhere with them. One time she took us to the mall and we had a blast! We ate at chick-fil-a, looked at toys, and played at the arcade. Another time was when she took us to Cristos and went bowling. I got my best score that day and beat everyone. Mrs. Bourne was a loving and caring teacher and that is why I will never forget her.

104 Focus – Essay 2 – Analysis
This paper focuses on a teacher and some aspects of her personality and classroom, rather than a single remembered incident. Therefore, the focus is not appropriate to the task.

105 Focus Assignment Write the answers down – as well as the score you receive

106 Suffix Groups of letters after a word used to modify its meaning or change it into a different part of speech

107 Suffixes able, ible capable of
portable - able to be carried, legible - able to be read ac, ic like, pertaining to cardiac - pertaining to the heart, aquatic - pertaining to the water acious, icious full of audacious - full of daring, avaricious - full of greed

108 Suffixes ant, ent full of
eloquent - pertaining to fluid, effective speech ary like, connected with dictionary - book connected with words ate to make consecrate to make holy

109 Suffixes eer, er, or person who
censor person who deletes improper remarks ism doctrine, belief monotheism belief in one god osis condition hypnosis condition of induced sleep tude state of certitude state of sureness

110 Voice The fluency, rhythm, and liveliness in writing that makes it unique to the writer

111 Voice – Comparisons I love the heady cruelty of spring. The cloud shows in the first weeks of the season are wonderfully adolescent: "I'm happy!" "I'm mad, I'm brooding." "I'm happy--now I'm going to cry ..." The skies and the weather toy with us, refusing to let us settle back down into the steady sleepy days and nights of winter. Anne Lamotte – a contemporary US writer and diarist.

112 Voice – Comparison I believe I have some idea of how the refugee feels, or the immigrant. Once, I was thus, or nearly so. ...And all the while I carried around inside me an elsewhere, a place of which I could not speak because no one would know what I was talking about. I was a displaced person, of a kind, in the jargon of the day. And displaced persons are displaced not just in space but in time; they have been cut off from their own pasts. ... If you cannot revisit your own origins--reach out and touch them from time to time--you are for ever in some crucial sense untethered. Penelope Lively (example 2,) a British author who spent her childhood in Cairo in the 1940s.

113 Voice – Comparison Privacy in the workplace is one of the more troubling personal and professional issues of our time. But privacy cannot be adequately addressed without considering a basic foundation of ethics. We cannot reach a meaningful normative conclusion about workplace privacy rights and obligations without a fundamental and common understanding of the ethical basis of justice and a thorough understanding of individual and organizational concerns and motivations. Laura Hartman (example 3) is an academic who writes about ethics and technology.

114 Voice – Twain "There was a feller here once by the name of Jim Smiley, in the winter of '49 — or may be it was the spring of '50 — I don't recollect exactly, somehow, though what makes me think it was one or the other is because I remember the big flume wasn't finished when he first came to the camp; but any way, he was the curiosest curiousest man about always betting on any thing that turned up you ever see…But still he was lucky, uncommon lucky; he most always come out winner He was always ready and laying for a chance; there couldn't be no solitry thing mentioned but that feller'd offer to bet on it, and take any side you please, as I was just telling you. If there was a horse-race, you'd find him flush, or you'd find him busted at teh end of it; if there was a dog-fight, he'd bet on it; if there was a cat-fight he'd bet on it; why, if there was two birds setting on a fence, he would bet you which one would fly first…

115 Voice – Bradbury It was a pleasure to burn.
It was a special pleasure to see things eaten, to see things blackened and changed. With the brass nozzle in his fists, with this great python spitting its venomous kerosene upon the world, the blood pounded in his head, and his hands were the hands of some amazing conductor playing all the symphonies of blazing and burning to bring down the tatters and charcoal ruins of history. With his symbolic helmet numbered 451 on his stolid head, and his eyes all orange flame with the thought of what came next, he flicked the igniter and the house jumped up in a gorging fire that burned the evening sky red and yellow and black. He strode in a swarm of fireflies. He wanted above all, like the old joke, to shove a marshmallow on a stick in the furnace, while the flapping pigeon-winged books died on the porch and lawn of the house. While the books went up in sparkling whirls and blew away on a wind turned dark with burning.

116 Voice – Austen It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife. However little known the feelings or views of such a man may be on his first entering a neighbourhood, this truth is so well fixed in the minds of the surrounding families, that he is considered the rightful property of some one or other of their daughters. "My dear Mr. Bennet," said his lady to him one day, "have you heard that Netherfield Park is let at last?" Mr. Bennet replied that he had not. "But it is," returned she; "for Mrs. Long has just been here, and she told me all about it." Mr. Bennet made no answer. "Do you not want to know who has taken it?" cried his wife impatiently.

117 Voice – Morrison Nuns go by as quiet as lust, and drunken men and sober eyes sing in the lobby of the Greek hotel. Rosemary Villanucci, our next-door friend who lives above her father's cafe, sits in a 1939 Buick eating bread and butter. She rolls down the window to tell my sister Frieda and me that we can't come in. We stare at her, wanting her bread, but more than that wanting to poke the arrogance out of her eyes and smash the pride of ownership that curls her chewing mouth. When she comes out of the car we will beat her up, make red marks on her white skin, and she will cry and ask us do we want her to pull her pants down. We will say no. We don't know what we should feel or do if she does, but whenever she asks us, we know she is offering us something precious and that our own pride must be asserted by refusing to accept.

118 Voice – Hesseini I became what I am today at the age of twelve, on
a frigid overcast day in the winter of I remember the precise moment, crouching behind a crumbling mud wall, peeking into the alley near the frozen creek. That was a long time ago, but it’s wrong what they say about the past, I’ve learned, about how you can bury it. Because the past claws its way out. Looking back now, I realize I have been peeking into that deserted alley for the last twenty-six years.

119 Analysis The process or result of identifying the parts of a whole and their relationship to one another

120 Lord of the Flies Analysis
Piggy's Glasses  Piggy is the most intelligent, rational boy in the group, and his glasses represent the power of science and intellectual endeavor in society. This symbolic significance is clear from the start of the novel, when the boys use the lenses from Piggy's glasses to focus the sunlight and start a fire. When Jack's hunters raid Ralph's camp and steal the glasses, the savages effectively take the power to make fire, leaving Ralph's group helpless.

121 Pygmalion Analysis Finally, and most significantly, Shaw challenges the possibly insidious assumptions that come with the Pygmalion myth, forcing us to ask the following: Is the male artist the absolute and perfect being who has the power to create woman in the image of his desires? Is the woman necessarily the inferior subject who sees her lover as her sky? Can there only ever be sexual/romantic relations between a man and a woman? Does beauty reflect virtue? Does the artist love his creation, or merely the art that brought that creation into being?

122 Macbeth Analysis The audience is left to ask whether the witches are independent agents toying with human lives, or agents of fate, whose prophecies are only reports of the inevitable. The witches bear a striking and obviously intentional resemblance to the Fates, female characters in both Norse and Greek mythology who weave the fabric of human lives and then cut the threads to end them.

123 A Christmas Carol Analysis
With each Ghost's tale functioning as a parable, A Christmas Carol advances the Christian moral ideals associated with Christmas--generosity, kindness, and universal love for your community--and of Victorian England in general. The book also offers a distinctly modern view of Christmas, less concerned with solemn religious ceremony and defined by more joyous traditions--the sharing of gifts, festive celebrations, displays of prosperity. The book also contains a political edge, most evident in Dickens' development of the bustling, struggling Cratchit family, who are a compelling, if one-dimensional, representation of the plight of the poor.

124 A Long Way Gone Analysis
“I was losing everyone, my family my friends.” Even while Ishmael was losing his family, friends and others he knew at a young age, he continues to stride to do the best in life. Throughout most of his childhood he is terrorized by what happens around him hoping it would never happen to him one day. Soon enough he was drafted into the government army and forced to kill innocent civilians and act against his will. A Long Way Gone, by Ishmael Beah, tells of his life as a boy soldier and how he fights himself and others to get out of murderous state. Ishmael pushes himself to continue in his fight to exit his killer lifestyle day by day as a boy soldier. And even to this day Ishmael still goes by his moral to never give up and keep on fighting for what’s right.

125 Pride and Prejudice Analysis
Mrs. Bennet is a miraculously tiresome character. Noisy and foolish, she is a woman consumed by the desire to see her daughters married and seems to care for nothing else in the world. Ironically, her single-minded pursuit of this goal tends to backfire, as her lack of social graces alienates the very people (Darcy and Bingley) whom she tries desperately to attract. Austen uses her continually to highlight the necessity of marriage for young women. Mrs. Bennet also serves as a middle-class counterpoint to such upper-class snobs as Lady Catherine and Miss Bingley, demonstrating that foolishness can be found at every level of society. In the end, however, Mrs. Bennet proves such an unattractive figure, lacking redeeming characteristics of any kind, that some readers have accused Austen of unfairness in portraying her—as if Austen, like Mr. Bennet, took perverse pleasure in poking fun at a woman already scorned as a result of her ill breeding.

126 Antonym A word that is the opposite of another word

127 Gradable Antonyms These describe something which can be measured and compared with something else. fast and slow small and big hot and cold dry and wet clean and dirty clever and stupid

128 Complementary Antonyms
Here there is no comparison or scale; it is a matter of being either one thing or another. alive and dead single and married male and female on and off right and wrong absent and present

129 Converse Antonyms These antonyms depend on each other. buy and sell
borrow and lend wife and husband above and below give and receive doctor and patient

130 Evaluate To analyze or study closely
The top level of Bloom's Taxonomy is evaluation. Here students are expected to assess information and come to a conclusion such as its value or the bias behind it.

131 Evaluate – Questions making value decisions about issues;
resolving controversies or differences of opinion; development of opinions, judgements or decisions Do you agree...? What do you think about...? What is the most important...? Place the following in order of priority... How would you decide about...? What criteria would you use to assess...

132 Evaluate – Question If a student is completing a DBQ (Document Based Question) for an AP US History course, they are expected to evaluate the bias behind any primary or secondary sources in order to see how that effects the points that the speaker is making.

133 Evaluate – Projects – choose one
Prepare a list of criteria to judge a talent show. Rate the novels you have read this year according to interest and importance. Make a booklet about 5 rules you see as important. Convince others. Write a letter to the administration advising on changes needed in the curriculum.

134 Limited View A point of view in which the speaker is speaking in the first person and telling things from his or her own perspective or in the third person from the perspective of a narrator who does not know the thoughts of all the characters

135 Limited View – Third Person
Mr. Johnson looked at Charles sternly.  He simply didn’t know what to do with this boy.  Charles had been in Mr. Johnson’s office twice earlier this week.  Now here he was again, and this time he was charged with something much more serious.  Mr. Johnson shook his head.  There really was no doubt in his mind.  Charles was guilty.  He looked at the police officer standing next to Charles.  No question whatsoever--Charles had done it.

136 Limited View – First Person
I can’t believe what is happening to me.  I know that I’ll never convince Mr. Johnson and the cop that I had nothing to do with this.  Man!  I didn’t do it.  Why won’t anyone believe me?  I’ve been in trouble before, but I’ve never done anything like this!  I’ve got to convince them, or I might as well kiss my life good-bye.

137 Limited View – First Person
When I saw them taking Charlie into the office, I lingered outside the door, hoping to find out what he had done this time.  Charlie was my best friend, but I was getting a little tired of defending him when I knew he was wrong.  He must have done something really big this time to have the cops involved.

138 First Person – Books The Catcher in the Rye by J. D. Salinger
Lolita by Vladimir Nabokov Jane Eyre by Charlotte Brontë The Lovely Bones by Alice Sebold The Bell Jar by Sylvia Plath To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain The Outsiders by S. E. Hinton I, Claudius by Robert Graves On the Road by Jack Kerouac A Clockwork Orange by Anthony Burgess One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest by Ken Kesey Bridget Jones's Diary by Helen Fielding The Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini

139 Third-Person Limited - Books
Juliet's Law (Silhouette Intimate Moments) by Ruth Wind Mr. Perfect by Linda Howard Summer's End by Kathleen Gilles Seidel The Veiled Web by Catherine Asaro The Ambassadors by Henry James The Red Badge of Courage by Stephen Crane

140 Text Structure The author’s method of organizing text

141 Text Structure – Description
"The crocodile is the master of deception in the water. It stalks its prey and then swiftly closes in for the kill."

142 Text Structure – Problem/Solution
"One problem to resolve in crocodile watching is transportation. How can an observer get close enough to watch without scaring it away or being attacked?"

143 Text Structure – Sequence/Time Order
"Archaeologists have helped us to understand that the evolution of the crocodile began with ..."

144 Text Structure – Comparison/Contrast
"The power of the crocodile is like that of a monstrous machine. With one lunge it can destroy its prey and protect the kill from other predators."

145 Text Structure – Cause/Effect
"We observed the crocodile as it stalked a raccoon moving through the moonlight toward the edge of the water. As a result of a noise we made, the raccoon bolted..."

146 Text Structure – Directions
"When observing a crocodile, first you must..."

147 Syntax The pattern of word order in sentences, clauses, and phrases

148 Syntax You should always balance parallel ideas that utilize a series or a linked comparison. “Hooked on romance novels, I learned that there is nothing more important than being rich, looking good, and to have a good time.” How should this sentence be revised?

149 Syntax Place phrases and clauses so that readers can see at a glance what they modify. When phrases or clauses are oddly placed, absurd mis-readings can result. (a) “The king returned to the clinic where he had undergone heart surgery in 2000 in a limousine sent by the White House.” (b) “Traveling in a limousine sent by the White House, the king returned to the clinic where he had undergone heart surgery in 2000.”

150 Syntax Repair dangling modifiers. A dangling modifier fails to refer logically to any word in the sentence. (a) “Deciding to join the navy, the recruiter enthusiastically pumped Joe’s Hand.” (b) “To please the children, some fireworks were set off a day early.” (c) “Though only sixteen, UCLA accepted Martha’s application.”

151 e.e. cummings Me up at does out of the floor quietly Stare a poisoned mouse still who alive is asking What have i done that You wouldn't have

152 William Carlos Williams
so much depends upon a red wheel barrow glazed with rain water beside the white chickens.

153 Author’s Thesis The stated or implied topic in a piece of literature and the feeling or ideas associated with it

154 Author’s Thesis – What? A thesis can be expressed as a statement
A thesis should be understandable A thesis should be coherent A thesis should be arguable A thesis can deal with facts, interpretations, or values

155 Author’s Thesis - Types
A descriptive thesis makes a claim about how things are. makes an “is” statement appeals to evidence that anyone (given enough training) can observe and confirm appeals to logic that anyone (again, given enough training) can test and confirm deals in measurement, analysis, interpretation, explanation A prescriptive thesis makes a claim about how things should be. makes a “should” statement appeals to shared values or morals—assessments of what is “good” and “bad” or “right” and “wrong.”

156 Author’s Thesis – Examples/Assignment
Racism in this country has historical roots in “taking land from and destroying indigenous peoples and enslaving Africans to work that land” (Loewen, 143). Global warming must be stopped! Music teachers should teach the African American roots of American popular music. Global warming is caused by human activity, not natural changes in the climate. Everyone deserves equal economic opportunity. American popular music is rooted in the folk tradition of African Americans. The United States does not offer equal economic opportunity to all of its citizens. We all need to work hard to overcome the legacy of slavery and racism. Determine whether these are descriptive or prescriptive.

157 Rising Action The part of the story where the plot becomes increasingly complicated

158 Rising Action Examples
danger guns bombs storms kidnap betrayal chase sequences fractured relationships uncertainty

159 Rising Action – 1984 Winston works in the Ministry of Truth. He alters historical records to fit the needs of the Party. He is troubled by the Party’s control of history: the Party claims that Oceania has always been allied with Eastasia in a war against Eurasia, but Winston seems to recall a time when this was not true. The Party also claims that Emmanuel Goldstein, the alleged leader of the Brotherhood, is the most dangerous man alive, but this does not seem plausible to Winston, as his hatred for the Party grows more and more intense. At last, he receives the message that he has been waiting for: O’Brien wants to see him.

160 Plot Diagram climax rising falling action action exposition resolution

161 Story Map

162 Nonfiction Prose writing that is not fictional; designed primarily to explain, argue, or describe rather than entertain

163 Nonfiction Examples magazine articles textbook chapters or sections
newspaper articles Internet printouts encyclopedia entries essays


165 Foreshadowing A device used in literature to create expectation or set up an explanation of later development by dropping hints or suggestions

166 Foreshadowing - Checkhov
Uncle Vanya, in which a pistol is introduced early on as a seemingly irrelevant prop and, towards the end of the play, becomes much more important as Uncle Vanya, in a rage, grabs it and tries to commit homicide.

167 Foreshadowing – Checkhov’s gun
One Thousand and One Nights (Arabian Nights), which contains "repeated references to some character or object which appears insignificant when first mentioned but which reappears later to intrude suddenly in the narrative".

168 Foreshadowing – Red herring
The Sixth Sense – scenes depicting the estrangement and lack of communication which occurs in the psychologist's marriage, and his alienation from the world because of his problems, are later seen as clues of much darker significance (some viewers were led to see the film twice, in disbelief at how effectively they were misled by character interactions which could be interpreted in two completely different ways).

169 Foreshadowing Examples
Romeo and Juliet – both main characters state early on that they would rather die than live apart. characters predicting the future – ranges from a woman predicting that her son will come to a bad end if he continues on his way to a character with the explicit ability to foresee the future prophesying an event to a self-fulfilling prophecy

170 Reading Critically Reading in which a questioning attitude, logical analysis and inferences are used to judge the worth of text, evaluating relevancy and adequacy of what is read; the judgment of validity or worth of what is read, based in sound criteria

171 Reading Critically Example
What evidence does the author provide to support his or her argument? Is there evidence provided supporting this? Would you accept this as fact? Why? Is this the author's opinion or fact? Teams are not magic. They must have tasks that are achievable within a specified time frame. The team charged with 'management' has an impossible brief and will surely fail unless effort is spent spelling out what the management task involves and what constitutes success. Neither are teams a cheap option. They inevitably consume resources and time. Teams rarely resolve conflict. More often, they pressure-cook it. If an individual has the skills to do the job with the requisite creativity, then the individual, not the team, should do the job.

172 Reading Critically Example
A critical reader of this article would ask why the author has suddenly switched to informal language where one might have expected formal language to continue. Is he/she attempting to first blind the reader with science and then build a personal relationship with the reader? Why? The metabolism of tyrosine is dependent on a form of folic acid (biopterin) and NADH (a type of Vitamin B3) as well as copper and vitamin C. Once tyrosine reaches the neurons, it is quickly converted to norepinephrine. This last, but crucial step, however, needs the presence of an enzyme (tyrosine hydroxylase) at the presynaptic nerve ending. This enzyme has to travel all the way down the axon to get there. So its availability, and therefore the output of norepinephrine to life the depression, depends on the amount of electrical activity along the nerve itself. This electrical activity is stimulated by any form of touch - chiropractic, osteopathy, massage, acupuncture, cuddling, stroking and, of course, sex. In case you think this is one of the best excuses for sex you've ever read - you're darn right!

173 Reading Critically Example
The author appears to be linking common feelings of sadness and melancholy with depressive illnesses such as bipolar disorder and SADS. Is this factually correct? By linking these things does the author mean to invoke fear in the reader? Gloom and doom; sadness and madness; melancholy; doldrums; languor; sorrowfulness - depression has many names. Often described as the common cold of psychiatry, depression is a very common problem and, indeed, it is a rare human being that does not feel depressed at some time. There are many different types of depression, with widely differing symptoms. Depression can be unipolar (medical language for 'simple') or bipolar. The latter is also known as manic depression and one variant of it is manic depressive psychosis. Then there is SADS, or Seasonal Affective Disorders Syndrome. There is also PPD (post-partum depression) and endogenous (from within) and reactive depression. This last means you are depressed because that is how you react to something that has happened to you.

174 Reading Critically Example
The idea in this first sentence in a Nursing article is most probably informed by research in Sociology or Anthropology. Where is the reference? Are these the author's ideas presented as fact? The writer here is writing as if his or her interpretation were absolutely the truth, instead of just an interpretation. The value systems of individuals and of societies can be said to have dominant temporal focuses. Societies in which hospital sickness and other disasters are seen as visited upon the individual by angry gods, spirits, or ancestors hold a dominant temporal focus on the past. Societies in which causes and consequences are disregarded in favour of immediate gratification and symptom hold a present temporal focus. Societies that show considerable anxiety about the implications and consequences of present situations, to experience little anxiety relief at the removal of a symptom, and need to plan and work toward future eventualities hold a future temporal focus.

175 Reading Critically - Example
Has the author overgeneralized the results here? The author has used the findings from a very small sample size, that may not represent a sufficient range of patients, to support a major line of argument about how patients view collaboration. The authors are inferring that the results gained from surveying these patients can be generalized to all patients. Each interview was tape recorded and took between 60 and 90 minutes to complete. After each interview, the tape was listened to and transcribed. During this period, hunches or working hypotheses were identified which were explored in subsequent interviews. The major theme of 'toeing the line' was identified that provides insight into how patients view 'collaboration'. The remainder of this paper will focus on an exploration of this theme and its significant implications for nursing.

176 Reading Critically Example
Is the methodology valid here? Critical readers would question whether the sample size was big enough to fulfill the aim of this study. They would also question whether the sample was representative enough of the wider population, as the criterion for inclusion in the population sample perhaps created an unrepresentative group. The personality type that is willing to participate in a study of this kind may suggest subjects that are already highly involved in patient participation, thus skewing the survey results. The aim of the study was to describe how patients perceive involvement in decisions concerning their own treatment and nursing care. Sample A convenience sample of 12 patients was selected from three mixed-sex medical wards. The only criterion for inclusion in the study was a willingness to participate.

177 Characterization The methods an author uses to reveal characters and their various personalities

178 Direct vs. Indirect Ed Johnson scratched his head in confusion as the sales rep explained Dralco’s newest engine performance diagnostic computer. The old mechanic hated modern electronics, preferring the old days when all he needed was a stack of manuals and a good set of tools. “That Ed Johnson,” said Anderson, watching the old mechanic scratch his head in confusion as the sales rep explained Dralco’s newest engine performance diagnostic computer. “He hasn’t got a clue about modern electronics. Give him a good set of tools and a stack of yellowing manuals with a carburetor needing repair, and he’d be happy as a hungry frog in a fly-field.”

179 Ten Ways in which a Character Can Be Revealed
By what s/he says. By how s/he says it. By psychological description. By physical description. By probing what s/he thinks. By what s/he does. By what others say about him or her. By his or her environment. By her reaction to others. By his reaction to himself.

180 Characterization Trevor pulled into the curb still going too fast, and stopped with a noisy squeal of brakes. He stepped out of his sports coupe, and walked over to Trudi. He was short and wiry, and looked like a weasel. His hair was smeared with a nasty-looking gel that reflected the sun unpleasantly as he moved. As he came nearer, he smiled furtively, and menacingly slid his hand into his jacket pocket. He was a nasty customer.

181 Characterization A black Porsche rounded the corner off the main road, and darted into the alleyway with a shriek of tires. It rocked to a halt at the curb, and the door opened. However, the driver stayed inside for at least a minute; Trudi noticed that he was combing and smoothing his hair. Finally, he stepped out of the car, wiped his hands on a tissue which he tossed back into the car, gently closed and locked the door, and turned towards Trudi, his face expressionless. Keys hanging from his hand, he approached her. Only then, did his mouth crinkle into a one-sided smile, which his eyes did not share. He slipped his hand with the keys into his jacket pocket, and left it there; she wondered if he had something he wanted to hand her.

182 Characterization – Speech
Many of the words spoken by the cat at the beginning of the story have an upbeat connotative meaning. For instance, the cat says to the children, “But we can have / Lots of fun that is funny!”

183 Speech – Explanation This reveals that the cat’s character is an upbeat character

184 Characterization – Thoughts
So all we could do was to Sit! And we did not like it. Not one little bit

185 Thoughts – Explanation
These are the thoughts of the narrator as he stares out the window on a rainy day. These thoughts reveal that this character is not happy

186 Characterization – Effects on Others
Throughout the first three quarters of the story, three different illustrations portray the fish scowling at the cat (11, 25, and 37) immediately after each of the cat’s activities. When the cat returns to clean up his mess at the end of the story the fish is shown with a smile on his face

187 Effects on Others – Explanation
The scowls on the fish’s face support the argument that the cat’s behavior at the beginning of the story is not acceptable to the fish. The fish’s smile at the end of the story reveals that the cat is engaging in behavior that is now acceptable to the fish.

188 Characterization – Actions
On page 18, the cat engages in “UP-UP-UP with a fish” an activity that involves the cat standing on a ball while balancing seven objects. Later in the story, the cat releases two “things” that fly kites inside the house.

189 Actions – Explanation These activities are outrageous,
dangerous and should not be conducted in the house. They reveal that the cat’s character is not concerned about rules related to safety and appropriateness.

190 Characterization – Looks
Throughout the first three-quarters of the story, the cat is shown with a smile on his face. Towards the end of the story, however, when the cat is told to leave, he is shown leaving the house with slumped shoulders and a sad face

191 Looks – Explanation The smiles reveal that the cat is
enjoying himself and is not apologetic for his outrageous behavior. The frown and slumped shoulders at the end of the story show that he is not enjoying himself anymore.

192 Third Person A perspective in literature in which the narrator presents the events of the story

193 Third person – Pride and Prejudice
Mr. Bennet was so odd a mixture of quick parts, sarcastic humour, reserve, and caprice, that the experience of three-and-twenty years had been insufficient to make his wife understand his character. Her mind was less difficult to develop. She was a woman of mean understanding, little information, and uncertain temper. When she was discontented, she fancied herself nervous. The business of her life was to get her daughters married; its solace was visiting and news.

194 Third person – Catch 22 The Texan shrank back. "You fellas are crazy. I didn't even touch him." "You murdered him," said Dunbar. "I heard you kill him," said Yossarian. "You killed him because he was a nigger" Dunbar said. "You fellas are crazy," the Texan cried. "They don't allow niggers in here. They got a special place for niggers." "The sergeant smuggled him in," Dunbar said. "The Communist sergeant," said Yossarian. "And you knew it." The warrant officer on Yossarian's left was unimpressed by the entire incident of the soldier in white. The warrant officer was unimpressed by everything and never spoke at all unless it was to show irritation.

195 Third person – Anna Karennina
Happy families are all alike; every unhappy family is unhappy in its own way. Everything was in confusion in the Oblonskys' house. The wife had discovered that the husband was carrying on an intrigue with a French girl, who had been a governess in their family, and she had announced to her husband that she could not go on living in the same house with him. This position of affairs had now lasted three days, and not only the husband and wife themselves, but all the members of their family and household, were painfully conscious of it.

196 Third person – The Lord of the Rings
Inside Bag End, Bilbo and Gandalf were sitting at the open window of a small room looking out west on to the garden. The late afternoon was bright and peaceful. The flowers glowed red and golden: snap-dragons and sun-flowers, and nasturtiums trailing all over the turf walls and peeping in at the round windows. ‘How bright your garden looks!’ said Gandalf. ‘Yes,’ said Bilbo. ‘I am very fond indeed of it, and of all the dear old Shire; but I think I need a holiday.’

197 Semantics The study of the meaning of language

198 Gentle – Etymology In the 14th century gentil had the meaning of “noble”, referring both to social class and to character. Because a noble person was supposed to be kind and considerate, the adjective today has the sense of “tender”, “careful” or “delicate”. The older meaning is preserved in gentleman, genteel and gentility. Until recently public toilets in the UK were designated Gentlemen or Ladies - where now we usually see a male or female picture representation. But these meanings live on in spoken English, as when someone says, perhaps in a public house, that she is off to the ladies’ or he is going to the gents’.

199 Villain – Etymology Villain has come to mean a wicked person, especially in drama or literature. Originally, it meant a person who farmed land under the feudal system. It is thus a class insult when used of the noble Romeo by Tybalt (“Thou art a villain”), or of the common Iago by Othello (“Villain, be sure thou prove my love a whore”). We may see how this leads to the modern meaning.

200 Holocaust – Etymology It is a compound of two elements from classical Greek - holos (meaning “whole”) and kaustos (meaning “burnt”). It was first coined in writing by the translators of the Septuagint, a Greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures made in Alexandria for King Ptolemy II in the third century BC. In its original context, the noun appears over two hundred times to translate Hebrew ’olâ (meaning literally “that which goes up”, that is, a sacrificial burnt offering). In modern times it has been used to denote the massive destruction, especially of people, in the world wars of the 20th century. Since the 1950s, it has been used more narrowly to denote the Nazis' murder of European Jews between 1941 and 1945.

201 Mouse – Etymology An example of a recent semantic change is of the word mouse; with the advent of computer technology, the word for the rodent has been used to refer to the input device.

202 Connotation Suggestions and associations which surround a word, as opposed to its literal meaning

203 Connotation – thin slender scrawny slim svelte lean skinny fit lanky
bony skeletal emaciated anorexic underweight undernourished

204 Connotation – young one
youngster child little fella brat urchin imp kid juvenile minor small fry

205 Connotation Assignment
A. Gus cooked dinner for Merdine. He prepared some meat and vegetables and a special dessert. (1) Describe the meal that Gus prepared, making it sound appetizing by using words with favorable connotations. (2) Describe the meal again, this time using words with negative connotations to make it sound quite unappealing. B. The person did not weigh very much. The person had brown hair and a small nose. The person wore informal clothing. (1) Identify and describe this particularly attractive person. (2) Identify and describe this particularly unattractive person. C. Douglas was careful with his money. He kept his money in a safe place. He bought only the necessities of life. He never borrowed or lent money. (1) Choose words that show how impressed you are by Douglas's sense of thrift. (2) Choose words that make fun of Douglas or pass scorn on him for being such a tightwad.

206 Editorials A newspaper or magazine article that gives the opinions of the editors or publishers

207 Editorial Synopsis Owning G.M.
President Obama owes American taxpayers a detailed explanation of the government’s goals for General Motors and the levers it intends to use to achieve them.

208 Editorial Synopsis Who Can Tame the Scalpers?
Senator Charles Schumer’s bill, which would require ticket resellers to obtain a federal registration number to appear on all sales documents, is a good start.

209 Editorial Excerpt Another Rescue?
At first glance, support for the municipal bond market seems like one more unfortunate but unavoidable lifeline for a troubled financial system. But we are not yet persuaded that the need is as urgent as some politicians are claiming — or if such support would be wise.

210 Editorial Cartoon

211 Flashback A device used in literature to present action that occurred before the beginning of the story

212 Flashback Example One of the first films to use a flashback technique was the 1939 Wuthering Heights, in which, as in Emily Brontë's original novel, the housekeeper Ellen narrates the main story to overnight visitor Mr. Lockwood, who has witnessed Heathcliff's frantic pursuit of what is apparently a ghost.

213 Flashback Example One of the most famous examples of non-chronological flashback is in the 1941 Orson Welles film Citizen Kane. The protagonist, Charles Foster Kane, dies at the beginning, uttering the word "Rosebud". A reporter spends the rest of the film interviewing Kane's friends and associates, in an effort to discover what Kane meant by uttering the word. As the interviews proceed, pieces of Kane's life unfold in flashback, but not always chronologically.

214 Flashback Example Flashbacks are a trademark of the Saw movies, with many scenes adding extra depth to characters and adding insight to various aspects of the series. Saw IV has one scene set in real-time, while the rest of the film is a flashback, structured around a series of other flashbacks.

215 Flashback Examples Dickens’ A Christmas Carol
Faulkner’s “A Rose for Emily” Vonnegut’s Slaughterhouse Five Cold Case How I Met Your Mother

216 Limerick A light or humorous verse form of five lines, of which 1, 2, and 5 rhyme and 3 and 4 rhyme

217 Limerick Example There was a young man from Dealing Who caught the bus for Ealing. It said on the door Don't spit on the floor So he jumped up and spat on the ceiling

218 Limerick Example There was an Old Man who supposed, That the street door was partially closed; But some very large rats, Ate his coats and his hats, While that futile old gentleman dozed.

219 Limerick Example There was a young lady of Lucca Whose lovers completely forsook her; She ran up a tree And said "Fiddle-de-dee!" Which embarrassed the people of Lucca.

220 Poetry Writing that aims to present ideas and evoke emotional experience in the reader through the use of meter imagery, connotative and concrete words, and a carefully constructed structure based on rhythmic patterns

221 Elegy Excerpt Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard by Thomas Gray
The curfew tolls the knell of parting day, The lowing herd winds slowly o'er the lea, The ploughman homeward plods his weary way, And leaves the world to darkness and to me.

222 Ode Excerpt – Terza Rima
Ode to the West Wind by Percy Bysshe Shelley O wild West Wind, thou breath of Autumn's being, Thou, from whose unseen presence the leaves dead Are driven, like ghosts from an enchanter fleeing

223 Poem using Enjambment Trees by Joyce Kilmer
I think that I shall never see A poem lovely as a tree. A tree whose hungry mouth is prest Against the sweet earth's flowing breast; A tree that looks at God all day, And lifts her leafy arms to pray; A tree that may in summer wear A nest of robins in her hair; Upon whose bosom snow has lain; Who intimately lives with rain. Poems are made by fools like me, But only God can make a tree.

224 Haikus Blossoms on the pear and a woman in the moonlight
reads a letter there Even stones in streams of mountain water compose songs to wild cherries

225 Senryus After he’s scolded His wife too much, He cooks the rice.
“Don’t worry” he says, And then tells you something That really gets you worried

226 Source Text and/or artifacts used during research

227 Sources – Examples Books & Textbooks Newspapers
Academic and Trade Journals Government Reports and Legal Documents Press Releases and Advertising Flyers, Pamphlets, Leaflets Multimedia: Radio, Television, Broadcasts Websites Weblogs / Blogs Message boards, discussion lists, and chat rooms Interviews Surveys & Questionnaires Observations

228 Hyperbole An exaggeration or overstatement

229 "My sister uses so much makeup,...
"she broke a chisel trying to get it off last night!" "Marilyn Manson freaked out when he saw her!" "when she takes it off, my mom doesn't recognize her." Ashley, from Knoxville, Tennessee "when she smiles, cracks the size of the Grand Canyon form in the surface." "when she takes it off she loses 30 pounds!" "she could pass as a clown at the circus." "you could scrape off just the outer layer and put it on five other girls."

230 Familiar Hyperboles These books weigh a ton. (These books are heavy.)
I could sleep for a year. (I could sleep for a long time.) He beat him into a pulp. (He beat him up very harshly.) I'm so hungry, I could eat a horse. (I'm very hungry) I'm doing a million things right now. (I'm busy.)

231 Sarah Cynthia Sylvia Stout Would Not Take The Garbage Out by Shel Silverstein
She’d scour the pots and scrape the pans, Candy the yams and spice the hams, And though her daddy would scream and shout, She simply would not take the garbage out. And so it piled up to the ceilings: Coffee grounds, potato peelings, Brown bananas, rotten peas, Chunks of sour cottage cheese. It filled the can, it covered the floor, It cracked the window, it blocked the door With bacon rinds and chicken bones, Drippy ends of ice cream cones, Prune pits, peach pits, orange peel, Gloppy glumps of cold oatmeal, Pizza crests and withered greens, Soggy beans and tangerines, Crusts of black burned buttered toast, Gristly bits of beefy roasts. . . The garbage rolled down the hall, It raised the roof, it broke the wall. . . Greasy napkins, cookie crumbs, Globs of gooey bubble gum, Cellophane from green baloney, Rubbery blubbery macaroni, Peanut butter, caked and dry, Curdled milk and crusts of pie, Moldy melons, dried up mustard, Eggshells mixed with lemon custard, Cold french fries and rancid meat, Yellow lumps of Cream of Wheat. At last the garbage reached so high That finally it touched the sky. And all the neighbors moved away, And none of her friends would come out to play. And finally Sarah Cynthia Stout said, “OK, I’ll take the garbage out!” But then, of course, it was too late. . . The garbage reached across the state, From New York to the Golden Gate. And there, in the garbage she did hate, Poor Sarah met an awful fate, That I cannot right now relate Because the hour is much too late. But children, remember Sarah Stout And always take the garbage out!

232 Hyperbole Assignment My teacher is so old… Our new house is so big…
That movie was so boring… Her hair was so long… His muscles were so big…

233 Compare Placing together characters, situations, or ideas to show common or differing features in literary selections

234 COMPARE/CONTRAST Golden Eagles are more apt to hunt for prey, while Bald Eagles are more likely to take an easy meal.

235 Compare – Paragraph My hometown and my college town have several things in common. First, both are small rural communities. For example, my hometown, Gridlock, has a population of only about 10,000 people. Similarly, my college town, Subnormal, consists of about 11,000 local residents. This population swells to 15,000 people when the college students are attending classes. A second way in which these two towns are similar is that they are both located in rural areas. Gridlock is surrounded by many acres of farmland which is devoted mainly to growing corn and soybeans. In the same way, Subnormal lies in the center of farmland which is used to raise hogs and cattle

236 Compare/Contrast Chart

237 Compare/Contrast – Venn Diagram

238 Conflict A struggle or clash between opposing characters, forces, or emotions

239 Man vs. Himself Examples
Madame Loisel vs. her worry of losing the necklace Rainsford vs. his fear of being killed Fortunato vs. his drunkeness

240 Man vs. Man Examples Rainsford vs. General Zaroff
Fortunato vs. Montressor Achilles vs. Hector

241 Man vs. Nature Examples Lizzy vs. the Marigolds
Crew of the Satori vs. the Storm The Perfect Storm Jack London's short story "To Build a Fire". A Separate Peace is a good example with Leper not wanting to jump out of the tree.

242 Man vs. Fate Examples Oedipus Rex Romeo and Juliet Beowulf

243 Man vs. Society Examples
Wuthering Heights by Emily Brontë The Outsiders by S.E. Hinton Holden Caulfield's struggle in The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger. Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen Frankenstein by Mary Shelley

244 Man vs. Supernatural Examples
Bram Stoker's Dracula Frankenstein by Mary Shelley "Christabel" by Samuel Coleridge Comic books Ghostbusters

245 Author’s Purpose An author’s intent, either to inform or teach someone about something, to entertain people, or to persuade or convince the audience to do or not to do something

246 To Entertain . Once upon a time there was a little boy who loved to play soccer. He would run as fast as he could to the ball, but every time he got there and tried to kick it he would miss. He started to think he wasn't very good at soccer, but he didn't give up. His hard work paid off and one day he scored the winning goal for his team.

247 To Persuade Art class should be longer than all other specials. There never seems to be enough time to get our pictures done. If we had more time in art class everyone would do a better job on their pictures and we would learn more. Art is very important and we should have the time we need to finish a project. .

248 To Inform/Explain Making a peanut butter and jelly sandwich is really easy. First, gather your ingredients (bread, peanut butter, jelly) and two knives. Spread the peanut butter on one slice of bread and your jelly on the other. Put the bread together and enjoy! .

249 To Inform/Describe The ocean water glitters for as far as the eye can see. The soft crash of waves and smell of salt water have a calming affect. Paradise Beach is a quiet place where you can watch wildlife and relax. .

250 X We have a new playground at our school
X We have a new playground at our school. We had to raise a lot of money to build our new playground. We sold candy bars, coupon books, and wrapping paper. The class who raised the most money was the first to play on the playground. ENTERTAIN PERSUADE EXPLAIN DESCRIBE

X One day a beautiful princess was walking down the street hoping to find her prince.   She looked high and low and finally gave up.   On her way home she found a lonely little frog.   She picked him up and began to talk to him telling him all her problems.   When she was done she said good-bye to the frog and gave him a kiss on top of his head.   Before her very eyes appeared the man of her dreams and they lived happily ever after. ENTERTAIN PERSUADE EXPLAIN DESCRIBE

X The old house smelled musty and decayed as I went inside. It obviously hadn’t been cared for in quite a while. The wallpaper was faded and peeling. Even though it was a beautiful sunny day outside, it was hard to see inside the house because of all the dirt that covered the windows. ENTERTAIN INFORM PERSUADE DESCRIBE

253 X Every child should play a sport
X Every child should play a sport.   When you are on a team you learn to get along with everyone and work together for a common goal.   Team work is the best lesson anyone can learn.   This is why I believe every child should be on a team. ENTERTAIN PERSUADE EXPLAIN DESCRIBE

254 Practice

255 Descriptive Text Allows a reader to picture the scene or setting in which the story takes place

256 Description Think about how you would…
Create a verbal picture of a friend Create a verbal picture of Arrowhead Stadium during a Chief’s game Summarize the main theme of a movie and how that theme was maintained Which do you like best? Football or Basketball? Why?

257 Description Questions What is the main idea?
What are the supporting details? Who or What is this about? What is the least important information about the who or what? What is the dominant impression? What are the sensory impressions?

258 Descriptive Text Golden Eagles are powerful raptors with large dark brown bodies and small heads with golden crowns. Their wings are strong and can span 78 inches. They have a short, dark, hooked beak and when they pierce their prey with their long, slender talons, they not only break the skin, they break the bones as well.

259 Descriptive Text – The Blond Guitar
My most valuable possession is an old, slightly warped blond guitar--the first instrument I taught myself how to play. It's nothing fancy, just a Madeira folk guitar, all scuffed and scratched and finger-printed. At the top is a bramble of copper-wound strings, each one hooked through the eye of a silver tuning key. The strings are stretched down a long, slim neck, its frets tarnished, the wood worn by years of fingers pressing chords and picking notes. The body of the Madeira is shaped like an enormous yellow pear, one that was slightly damaged in shipping. The blond wood has been chipped and gouged to gray, particularly where the pick guard fell off years ago. No, it's not a beautiful instrument, but it still lets me make music, and for that I will always treasure it.

260 Descriptive Text – A Friendly Clown
On one corner of my dresser sits a smiling toy clown on a tiny unicycle--a gift I received last Christmas from a close friend. The clown's short yellow hair, made of yarn, covers its ears but is parted above the eyes. The blue eyes are outlined in black with thin, dark lashes flowing from the brows. It has cherry-red cheeks, nose, and lips, and its broad grin disappears into the wide, white ruffle around its neck. The clown wears a fluffy, two-tone nylon costume. The left side of the outfit is light blue, and the right side is red. The two colors merge in a dark line that runs down the center of the small outfit. Surrounding its ankles and disguising its long black shoes are big pink bows. The white spokes on the wheels of the unicycle gather in the center and expand to the black tire so that the wheel somewhat resembles the inner half of a grapefruit. The clown and unicycle together stand about a foot high. As a cherished gift from my good friend Tran, this colorful figure greets me with a smile every time I enter my room.

261 Fairy Tale Short narratives featuring mythical beings such as fairies, elves, and sprites; originally belonged to the folklore of a particular region or nation

262 Fairy Tales Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs Sleeping Beauty

263 Fairy Tales Rumplestiltskin The Princess and the Pea

264 Fairy Tales Hansel and Gretel Cinderella

265 Informational Text Comprise a majority of printed materials – nonfiction, written primarily to convey factual information

266 Informational Text Examples
Chronological/Sequential Order: A main idea is supported by details that must be in a particular sequence. Enumeration/Description: A major idea is supported by a list of details or examples. Comparison/Contrast: The supporting details of two or more main ideas indicate how those concepts are similar or different. Cause/Effect: The supporting details give the causes of a main idea or the supporting details are the results produced by the main idea.

267 Main Idea The author’s central thought; the chief topic expressed or implied in a word or phrase; the topic sentence of a paragraph

268 Main Idea Example Summer is a wonderful time to spend at West Beach. It is a beach with light-colored, soft sand. The coastline goes on for a long way and many people enjoy walking along it. Children like to play in the surf and walk along the rocks that are visible at low tide. This is a fun beach for people of all ages.

269 Main Idea Examples The movie Apollo 13 was a blockbuster for the summer of It is an exciting story about space exploration. In the movie, the astronauts get in trouble while they are trying to return to Earth. People in the audience are on the edge of their seats waiting to see what happens. What makes it even more exciting is that it is a true story. 

270 Main Idea Examples Most teenagers and young adults do not know what
they want to do for the rest of their lives. It is a big decision. There are a number of things you can do to narrow the choices. For example you can take an interest test, do some research on your own about a career, try volunteer work in the field in which you are interested, or "job-shadow", in which you spend a day with a person who is working in a field that interests you. These are just a few helpful ideas as you begin to choose a career.

271 Point of View The way in which an author reveals characters, events, and ideas in telling a story; the vantage point from which a story is told

272 First-person POV I was sure there was someone following me. I walked faster, but the sense of foreboding closed in around me like a cold hand clenching around my spine. When I turned to look behind me, the street was deserted.

273 Second-person POV You are walking down the street. You know there is someone behind you; you feel the cold hand of fear grip your spine. When you turn to look behind you, the street is deserted.

274 Third-person Limited POV
She was sure there was someone following her. She walked faster, but the sense of foreboding closed in around her like a cold hand clenching around her spine. When she turned to look behind her, the street was deserted.

275 Third-person Limited Glaspell's A Jury of Her Peers
Freeman's The Revolt of Mother Cather's Paul's Case Faulkner's Barn Burning Porter's The Grave and The Jilting of Granny Weatherall

276 Third-person Omniscient
From sixteen-year-old Otis Ormonde, who has two more years at Hill School, to G. Reece Stoddard, over whose bureau at home hangs a Harvard law diploma; from little Madeleine Hogue, whose hair still feels strange and uncomfortable on top of her head, to Bessie MacRae, who has been the life of the party a little too long--more than ten years--the medley is not only the centre of the stage but contains the only people capable of getting an un-obstructed view of it.

277 Third-person Omniscient
Bernice Bobs Her Hair Parker Adderson Philosopher

278 Third-person Objective
The children assembled first, of course. School was recently over for the summer, and the feeling of liberty sat uneasily on most of them; they tended to gather together quietly for a while before they broke into boisterous play. and their talk was still of the classroom and the teacher, of books and reprimands. Bobby Martin had already stuffed his pockets full of stones, and the other boys soon followed his example, selecting the smoothest and roundest stones; Bobby and Harry Jones and Dickie Delacroix-- the villagers pronounced this name "Dellacroy"--eventually made a great pile of stones in one corner of the square and guarded it against the raids of the other boys. The girls stood aside, talking among themselves, looking over their shoulders at the boys. and the very small children rolled in the dust or clung to the hands of their older brothers or sisters.

279 Third-person Objective
Crane's The Blue Hotel Jackson's The Lottery Lardner's The Greatest Man in the World Hemingway's Hills Like White Elephants

280 Reading Rate The speed at which a person reads, usually silently

281 Factors that Reduce Reading Rate
1. Limited perceptual span (word-by-word reading) 2. Vocalization (reading aloud) 3. Faulty habits of attention and concentration (including simple inattention during the reading act and faulty processes of retention) 4. Lack of practice in reading—use it or lose it! 5. Fear of losing comprehension, causing the person to deliberately read more slowly 6. Poor evaluation of which aspects are important and which are unimportant 7. The effort to remember everything rather than to remember selectively

282 When to decrease speed.. 1. Unfamiliar terminology
2. Difficult sentence and paragraph structure. 3. Unfamiliar or abstract concepts. 4. Detailed, technical material. 5. Material on which you want detailed retention.

283 When to increase speed…
1. Simple material with few ideas which are new to you. 2. Unnecessary examples and illustrations. 3. Detailed explanation and idea elaboration 4. Broad, generalized ideas and ideas which are restatements of previous ones.

284 Words Per Minute Early Rate End Rate Grade 1 50 70 Grade 2 100 Grade 3
130 Grade 4 140 Grade 5 160 Grade 6 170

285 Where Are You?

286 Summarize To capture all of the most important parts of the original text, but express them in a much shorter space in the reader’s own words

287 Summaries

288 GIST Summary

289 Summarizing Strategies

290 Target Words Words that students are supposed to know (like these)

291 Genetics phenotype genotype homozygous heterozygous selective breeding
Punnett squares dominant recessive hybrid

292 Algebra function factor FOIL inverse functions linear equations
quadratic equations

293 Music beat chord harmony rhythm discord melody score tempo
accompaniment improvise

294 X accuracy control group distribution mean median variation mode
mean deviation population range standard deviation standard error

295 X noun plural possessive antecedent relative pronoun interrogative
direct object gerund modifier transitive passive voice Past tense

296 X archetypes birth data degree dogma houses planet sign

297 X baste al dente bouillon broil chop cream cure garnish grill marinade

298 Research A systematic inquiry into a subject or problem in order to discover, verify, or revise relevant facts or principles having to do with the subject or problem

299 Research – Napster Your focused research question: Am I infringing on musicians' rights when I use Napster? Your thesis statement: Napster is at the center of the current Internet copyright controversy. Individuals wanting to share the music they love are at legal odds with the music industry wanting to be paid for the music it produces.

300 Research – Degas Your focused research question: What was the impact of New Orleans on the painting of Edgar Degas? Your thesis statement: Edgar Degas' visits to his uncle's plantation in Louisiana influenced his later painting.

301 Research – Sports/violence
Your focused research question: Are professional athletes more violent than the average male? Your thesis statement: Many factors contribute to a higher than average rate of violence among professional athletes.

302 Research – Lake Powell Your focused research question: Should Lake Powell be drained? Your thesis statement: Draining Lake Powell would affect the environment, economy, and electricity supply.

303 Research – Parental involvement in schools
Your focused research question: How can parental involvement improve a child's learning? Your thesis statement: Parental involvement brings academic success.

304 Retell A child is asked to recount, in his/her own words, a story that’s just been read

305 Retelling Ring for Nonfiction – K. Haag
1. What was the book mostly about? 2. Summarize what you learned from reading this book. 3. What did you learn that you didn't already know? 4. Tell the main ideas in order. 5. What features of text did you notice the author used? 6. Explain the author's purpose for writing this book? 7. What is the most important idea you learned? 8. How has reading this book changed what you believe? 9. How has reading this book changed how you will act?

306 Retelling Narratives READ only as much as your hand can cover.*
COVER the words with your hand. REMEMBER what you have just read. (It is okay to take another look). RETELL what you just read inside your head or to a partner.

307 Mathematics Retelling
1. Tell when to use this procedure? 2. Define the concept or procedure? 3. Identify the main steps in this concept? 4. Make sense to the learner? 5. Sound organized? 6. Keep the sequence of the procedure? 7. Tell how this could be applied to real world situations? 8. Answer the question presented by the problem?

308 History Retelling 1. Have a good beginning telling when and where
the situation takes place? 2. Name the person(s) involved? 3. Tell the main points of the situation? 4. Tell some supporting details? 5. Make sense to the reader? 6. Sound organized? 7. Keep the sequence of the situation? 8. Tell what the main problem was in the situation? 9. Was the situation solved and how did it come about?

309 Science Retelling 1. State the problem presented?
2. Tell what outcome is expected? 3. Identify the main points of the concept/procedure? 4. Tell some variables of the concept/procedure? 5. Follow the process/steps? 6. Sound organized? 7. Keep the sequence of the procedure? 8. Tell how this could be applied to real world situations? 9. Tell whether the outcome of the procedure was expected or not and why?

310 Root Word A word to which prefixes and suffixes can be added to form different words

311 Greek/Latin Roots arch chief; primary; first archetype bio life
biology gen birth generate manu hand manual

312 Greek/Latin Roots path feeling empathy proto first prototype sect cut
dissect vac empty vacant

313 Simile A comparison of two unlike things using, like, as or resembles

314 Common Similes As alike as two peas in a pod As annoying as nails scratching against a chalkboard. As bald as a baby's backside As big as a bus As blind as a bat As bold as brass As brave as a lion As bright as the sun As busy as a beaver As busy as a bee As busy as a cat on a hot tin roof As clean as a whistle As dry as a bone As dry as dust As dull as dishwater As easy as A.B.C. As easy as pie As fit as a fiddle As flat as a pancake As hairy as an ape As happy as a clown As hard as nails As hard as rock As cold as ice As cool as a cucumber As crazy as a loon As cunning as a fox As cute as a button

315 Similes in Poetry What happens to a dream deferred? Does it dry up
like a raisin in the sun? Or fester like a sore- And then run? Does it stink like rotten meat? Or crust and sugar over- like a syrupy sweet? Maybe it just sags like a heavy load. Or does it explode?                             

316 Similes in Prose “Jimmy Smith was moving through the room like an enormous trained mole collecting the empty cans.” Suttree by Cormac McCarthy. “Elderly American ladies leaning on their canes listed toward me like towers of Pisa.” Lolita by Vladimir Nabokov. “Lithe brown arms encircled him like a legion of snakes.” The Sea-Hawk by Rafael Sabatini.

317 Style How an author writes; an author’s use of language – its effects and appropriateness to the author’s intent and theme

318 Robinson Crusoe I WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good family, though not of that country, my father being a foreigner of Bremen, who settled first at Hull. He got a good estate by merchandise, and leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at York, from whence he had married my mother, whose relations were named Robinson, a very good family in that country, and from whom I was called Robinson Kreutznaer; but, by the usual corruption of words in England, we are now called - nay we call ourselves and write our name - Crusoe; and so my companions always called me.

319 A Farewell to Arms If people bring so much courage to this world the world has to kill them to break them, so of course it kills them. The world breaks every one and afterward many are strong at the broken places. But those that will not break it kills. It kills the very good and the very gentle and the very brave impartially. If you are none of these you can be sure it will kill you too but there will be no special hurry.

320 Of Mice and Men They took places opposite each other at the table under the light, but George did not shuffle the cards. He rippled the edge of the deck nervously, and the little snapping noise drew the eyes of all the men in the room, so that he stopped doing it. The silence fell on the room again. A minute passed, and another minute. Candy lay still, staring at the ceiling. Slim gazed at him for a moment and then looked down at his hands; he subdued one hand with the other, and held it down. There came a little gnawing sound from under the floor and all the men looked down toward it gratefully. Only Candy continued to stare at the ceiling.

321 Meter The repetition of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line of poetry

322 Meter Examples iambic pentameter (5 iambs, 10 syllables)
That time | of year | thou mayst | in me | behold trochaic tetrameter (4 trochees, 8 syllables) Tell me | not in | mournful | numbers anapestic trimeter (3 anapests, 9 syllables) And the sound | of a voice | that is still dactylic hexameter (6 dactyls, 17 syllables; a trochee replaces the last dactyl) This is the | forest pri | meval, the | murmuring | pine and the | hemlocks

323 Nursery rhymes A short, rhymed poem or tale for children

324 Nursery Rhymes Mary, Mary Quite Contrary Hickory, Dickory Dock
Humpty Dumpty Old Mother Hubbard One Two Buckle My Shoe There Was an Old Woman… Goosey, Goosey Gander

325 Riddles

326 Multiple-Meaning Words
Words that have several meanings depending on how they are used in sentences

327 Multiple-meaning Words in Sentences
crash: I had a car crash.  Tom will try not to crash into the pole. pet: I have a golden lab for a pet.  Sara and Jenna like to pet dogs. dance: The middle school will have a dance.  I will dance the jitterbug. cut: Bill has a cut on his finger.  Tam will cut out the pictures. paw:  My dog's paw is big.  The horse will paw at the snow to find grass.

328 Multiple-meaning Words in Sentences
dread: My dread of birds causes me problems.  Marla dreads taking tests. post: Gary pounded the post into the dirt.  The teacher will post the grades. string: The guitar string broke.  He has to string beads in preschool. smell: Kids sweating have a smell.  Sue can smell a skunk. fire: We will build a fire and roast marshmallows.  The boss will fire him.

329 Multiple-meaning Words Assignment: Choose 10
trap camp bomb shop place cover swing name staple shout float station plan talk fence

330 Onomatopoeia The use of words whose sounds express or suggest their meaning

331 Onomatopoeia Examples
achoo ahem baa bah bam bang bark bash cluck fizz bonk boo boom bubble bump buzz chatter cheep chirp clang

332 Plot The sequence in which the author arranges events in a story

333 The Great Gatsby Nick Carraway is a young man from Minnesota goes to New York to learn bond business. He is very attracted to the rich people and their culture and so rents a house in the West Egg district in Long Island. Though the area is wealthy and only rich people live there, they are not really civilized people. While the West Egg has unfashionable people, the East Egg which is just opposite the bay has fashionable and high society people. Nick has few relatives in the East Egg…

334 The Canterbury Tales There is no prologue or introduction to the Tale, which is only 286 lines long. Despite the shortness of the Tale, the Physician spends a long time introducing us to one of the characters, the 14-year-old daughter of Virginius, a knight. The girl is a paragon of virtue, beautiful, modest, with perfect manners, and everything a parent would want a daughter to be. Indeed, the physician goes on to tells us that all children should be brought up with the same degree of care as this "lordes doghtre". More than 100 lines have been spoken before anything happens at all!

335 The Giver People in the community take special care to avoid doing or saying anything different. In the community, one must not say anything that causes discomfort to others, and one must use language precisely. Husbands and wives are matched as couples by a Committee of Elders who reviews each individual to see if a person's characteristics will be compatible with those of his mate. Exactly two children-one male and one female-are assigned to each family unit. The elderly live at the House of the Old. Those whose children have grown to have families of their own live with other Childless Adults. Newborn infants are nurtured at the Nurturing Center until they become Ones and are assigned to family units…

336 Figurative Language Language that cannot be taken literally since it was written to create a special effect or feeling

337 Alliteration/Assignment
"Fly away, my fine feathered friend!" 1.  The two turtles... 2.  A horrible house... 3.  The dirty dog...

338 Idioms Idiom Actual Meaning
Cross that bridge when you come           Don't worry about problems to it.                                                    until they actually happen. hit the hay                                            go to bed raining cats and dogs                            raining hard on cloud nine                                       very happy; joyous once in a blue moon                              almost never; not very often

339 Idioms Assignment 1.  If you don't hand in your report, you will miss the boat for an "A". 2.  Tomorrow is Jack's surprise party, so don't let the cat out of the bag when you see him. 3.  When Erin didn't do her homework and failed the quiz, her mom hit the roof. 4.  Joe is down in the dumps since his friend moved away. 5.  Mary wasn't paying attention and seemed out in left field when the teacher called on her. 6.  George said I would lose, but since I didn't, he will have to eat his words. 7.  You shouldn't spend an arm and a leg on a foolish video game! 8.  He went out on a limb and asked the principal if he could miss class to go to the party. 9.  All I said was I didn't feel like doing my work and the teacher jumped down my throat. 10.  When Sara didn't turn in her project, her "A" went down the drain.

340 Metaphor Her teeth are pearls. "The fog comes in on little cat feet"
"Men's words are bullets, that their enemies take up and make use of against them." "A man may break a word with you, sir, and words are but wind.“ "The rain came down in long knitting needles.“ "Memory is a crazy woman that hoards colored rags and throws away food."

341 Metaphor Assignment Autumn is a season of dust.  Into the dust crumble memories of powerful ocean tides hitting a sea of sand, early morning walks on a white crescent of beach, and sun scorched hills where the beauty of the summer slowly unfolds.  But autumn, too, will bring her own memories.  The foliage is a painting come to life and the music of the falling leaves will serenade us into winter.

342 Personification "Summer Grass" by Carl Sandburg
Summer grass aches and whispers It wants something: it calls and sings; it pours out wishes to the overhead stars. The rain hears; the rain answers; the rain is slow coming; the rain wets the face of the grass.

343 Personification Assignment
Underline the non-human thing and circle the human quality. 1.  The winter wrapped its icy claws around Northeast Pennsylvania. 2.  The alarm clock screeched that it was time to get up. 3.  Fear grabbed me as I heard footsteps behind me. 4.  The washer sputtered and groaned as it removed the mud from the knees of my old jeans. 5.  The printer spit out more copies than I needed. 6.  The branches of the tree pointed to the old dirt road. 7.  The flood waters swallowed the trees in one big gulp. 8.  The stars winked at us from the night sky. 9.  Listening to the piano sing its happy tune made me want to dance. 10.  That carrot cake with the cream cheese icing is calling my name.

344 Simile "Simile: Willow and Ginkgo" by Eve Merrriam
The willow is like an etching, Fine-lined against the sky. The ginkgo is like a crude sketch, Hardly worthy to be signed. The willow's music is like a soprano Delicate and thin. The ginkgo's tune is like a chorus With everyone joining in. 

345 Simile Assignment 1. pearls as big as 2. The kids are as busy as a/n
3.  The light is as bright as 4.  skin as smooth as 5.  rocks sharp as 6.  The class was wild like 7.  He was big like 8.  The fish was small as 9.  I am hungry like a 10. Her face was round as

346 Genre A category used to classify literary works, usually by form, technique, or content

347 Genre Wheel

348 Graphic Organizer A diagram or pictorial device that shows relationships

349 Character Diagram .

350 Concept Map

351 Timeline

352 Pie Chart

353 Bar Graph

354 Scatterplots

355 Line Graph

356 Graphic Organizer

357 Essay Web

358 Semantic Web

359 Problem/Solution

360 Plot Diagram

361 Story Map

362 Venn Diagram

363 Vocabulary Mapping

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