Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10, Section 3. Jefferson wanted the U.S. to seek friendship of all nations but have “entangling alliances with none.” His desire to keep the."— Presentation transcript:
Jefferson wanted the U.S. to seek friendship of all nations but have “entangling alliances with none.” His desire to keep the U.S. out of conflict with other nations was doomed from the start.
In 1803, yet again war broke out between France and Britain. The U.S. tried to stay out of the war, but Britain begin to capture any ship bound for France, and the French stopped all ships bound for Britain. Britain had a shortage of sailors, so Britain begin to use a policy of impressment- or kidnapping, of American merchant sailors. Between 1803 and 1812, the British impressed about 6,000 American sailors.
Instead of declaring war, Jefferson asked Congress to stop all foreign trade. Jefferson described this policy as “peaceable coercion.” In 1807, Congress passed the Embargo Act of 1807, which forbade American ships from sailing to foreign ports. Also closed American ports to British ships. The policy harmed the U.S. more than I did France and Britain. Farmers and manufacturers lost key markets for their products.
Since the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794, Native Americans had continued to lose their lands to white settlers. Tecumseh, a Shawnee chief, vowed to stop this. William Henry Harrison, governor of the Indian Territory, sighed the Treaty of Fort Wayne- the sale of more than three million acres of land- with chiefs of the Miami, Delaware, and Potawatomi Tribes. Tecumseh declared the treaty void, should have the agreement of all tribes.
In late 1811, William Henry Harrison's forces defeated the Shawnee. Following defeat, Tecumseh sided with the British in Canada. Tecumseh's welcoming in Canada increased anti-British feelings in the west.
By 1812, more and more Americans were calling for war against Britain. War Hawks- those who supported the war. Finally on June 18, 1812, President James Madison asked congress to declare war o Britain.
1812-1814- Britain concentrated its war on France. Spent little energy in North America. Blockaded the American coast. Gave time for the U.S. to increase and strengthen its navy.
Most important U.S. Navel victory took place on Lake Erie. In September 13, 1813, a small British force set out to destroy a new American navel fleet. For two hours, British and American ships exchanged cannon fire. American Commodore Perry soon forced the British to surrender. The British fled to Canada, where they were later defeated at the Battle of Thames in Oct. 1813. Tecumseh died in battle, fighting for the British.
The second phase began after the British defeated Napoleon in Europe in April 1814. Britain's army and navy were now set to attack the U.S. In August 1814, British forces neared Washington, D.C.. President Madison and other officials fled the city. Dolly Madison refused to leave the White House, staying behind to rescue important objects.
The British burned the White House and the Capital building. Then moved on to attack Fort McHenry in Baltimore. Dolly Madison as able to save the full length portrait of George Washington.
Commander of Fort McHenry requested a flag “so large that the British will have no difficulty in seeing it.” Francis Scott key, an American lawyer, detained on a British ship, watched the all-night battle. At dawn, Key saw that the flag was still flying with triumph. He expressed his pride in a poem that is known as “The Star-Spangled Banner” It had later become the American national anthem.
The British began to move in on the port of New Orleans. In December 1814, dozens of ships carrying 7,500 British troops approached the coastline of Louisiana. Under the command of Andrew Jackson, the Americans had organized an army.
January 8, 1815, British forces attack Jackson’s forces. Using the earth to build defenses, the American army fended off advancing British troops. American casualties totaled 71,000 compared to Britain's 2,000. It was a great victory for Jackson. Jackson had become an American hero!!!
The Treaty of Ghent showed that the War of 1812 had no clear winner. No territory changed hands, and trade disputes remained unresolved. No side made any significant gains. Andrew Jackson & Oliver Hazard Perry were claimed heroes, increasing American patriotism. The American victory also increase optimism about the nation's future.