Birth Rate The number of live births per 1,000 population (people) in a given year.
Death Rate The number of deaths per 1,000 population (people) in a given year.
Life Expectancy The average number of additional years a person of a given age could expect to live if current mortality trends were to continue for the rest of that person’s life. Most commonly cited as life expectancy at birth.
Replacement Level Fertility The level of fertility at which a couple has only enough children to replace themselves, or about two children per couple.
Total Fertility Rate The average number of children that would be born alive to a woman during her lifetime if she were to pass through her childbearing years conforming to the age specific fertility rates of a given year.
Zero Population Growth A growth rate of zero, achieved when births plus immigration equal deaths plus emigration. B + I + D + E = 0
Infant Mortality Rate Number of deaths of infants under 1 year old per 1,000 live births
Demographic Transition The historical birth and death rates from high to low levels in a population. The model consists of 4 stages.
Stage 1: Pre-Industrial (not common) Equation High birth rate + high death rate = little growth Fact High birth rates and high death rates = no great population growth Fact Countries have very basic -living standards -little education or health care -Food supply is erratic -little family planning Example Very rural Africa and Asian communities/villages Example U.S. before colonization
Stage 2: Transitional Equation High birth rate + high death rate = little growth Fact There are a lot of births, but the death rate has decreased (20/1,000 infants who die). Fact Population increases because more infants are surviving. Fact Reason for less people dying = -health care -improved sanitation -more transportation and medical care. Fact There’s a slight modernization in health care & that raises people’s living standards & life expectancy. Example Most African countries and India Example When U.S. was colonized