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Erika Kraus and Garrett Lattanzio. INTRODUCTION TO WHEAT Cereal grain Grown around the world Staple food source Many similarities exist between the wheat.

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Presentation on theme: "Erika Kraus and Garrett Lattanzio. INTRODUCTION TO WHEAT Cereal grain Grown around the world Staple food source Many similarities exist between the wheat."— Presentation transcript:

1 Erika Kraus and Garrett Lattanzio

2 INTRODUCTION TO WHEAT Cereal grain Grown around the world Staple food source Many similarities exist between the wheat industries of the United States and France.


4 SUPPLY United States #3 field crop behind corn and soybeans 4 th largest producer in the world with 61,755.0 thousand metric tons (2013) Top producing state is North Dakota, followed by Kansas Grown in almost every state France Largest producer in the EU EU was largest producer in the world with 133,049.0 thousand metric tons (2013) Most of production in northern regions of France

5 WHEAT PRODUCTION United States France

6 DEMAND United States Fourth largest consumer in world 35,704 TMT consumed in 2012 2011 – average person consumed 135.2 pounds of wheat Average consumption = decreased from 225 lbs per capita in the 1800s France Sixth largest consumer in world 18,467 TMT consumed in 2012 2010 – average person consumed 241 pounds of wheat 135.2 lbs 241 lbs

7 GENETICALLY MODIFIED WHEAT United States GM wheat not commercially grown Some research and development 419 field tests as of 2013 2002 – Monsanto attempt with herbicide resistant strain (MON 71800) France Mostly all GMOs are banned by law in EU No GM wheat in production

8 ORGANIC WHEAT United States 2004 – 200,000 acres of organic wheat grown As of 2004, grown in 24 states Only 0.33% of all wheat grown is organic France 2006 – 75,000 acres of organic wheat grown Studies revealed that organic winter wheat has lower yields and grain protein content Threshold of GPC for organic bread making – risen from 9% to 10.5%

9 WHEAT AGRICULTURAL POLICIES United States Market Access Program (MAP) is an export subsidy Foreign Market Development (FMD) Work with U.S. wheat farmers and the USDA to share cost of overseas market development and maintain sales in competitive market Subsidies: direct payments – to 10 crops including wheat, marketing loans (price support program) France Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) o Reform- decreased support prices of products; wheat experienced the most o Since 1992 – support prices decreased by 80% for soft wheat o Durum wheat – 85% decrease

10 BIO-FUELS INVOLVING WHEAT United States Wheat is used as a bio-fuel, although corn makes up 90% of ethanol production Advanced bio-fuel research that involves using the wheat stock instead of the grains France In Western Europe wheat is the #1 source of ethanol (this includes France!) France = the second largest producer of biofuels in Europe


12 ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS FROM WHEAT PRODUCTION United States Soil erosion Soil nutrient depletion Water depletion Run-off from fertilizer France Same effects on the environment South western farms in France – most significant yield losses due to erosion


14 WHEAT FOOD SAFETY United States FDA – Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act – traceability of wheat back to it’s source Oregon instance – untested GMO wheat was found growing in a farmer’s field France ANSES – French Agency for Food, Environmental, & Occupational Health Safety

15 WHEAT AGRIBUSINESSES United States Cargill Inc. o Largest trader of wheat and grains in the U.S. o $136.7 billion in sales and other revenues in 2013 France Senalia Union o Owner of largest silo and holding network in Europe o At the Rouen base, they can store 250,000 tons of wheat o Cereals enter and leave by rail, road and waterways

16 ANIMAL WELFARE UNITED STATES & FRANCE Current production does not involve animal labor Wheat is used in livestock feeds Contamination of wheat could harm animals Carcinogen called Aflatoxin – if found in wheat, it could result in reduced feed intake and a suppressed immune system for the animal

17 FOOD LABELING United States “Whole Grains” stamp – Whole Grains Council, have specific requirements Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act o Wheat is the #9 allergen in the U.S. and under this act, foods containing wheat must be labeled o Trace amounts must also be labeled France Also has allergy labeling info, “Sans Gluten” All trace amounts of wheat must also be labeled, even if it is a sweetener that is made from wheat

18 DIET AND HEALTH RELATED TO WHEAT United States Diet Guidelines for Americans suggest that we should eat 250 grams of wheat per day = 63% of our diet Estimated that 1/133 Americans have Celiac disease Only existing treatment for Celiac is a 100% gluten free diet France In France, it is recommended to have a carbohydrate with every meal Bread is important in French food culture, and is highly consumed


20 AGRICULTURAL TRADE United States World’s biggest wheat exporter 2008 – 34 million metric tons exported = 30% of all the world’s wheat exports Import roughly 2.5 million tons of a wheat a year on average France Largest wheat producer in the EU, also a major player in exports EU exports – 25 million metric tons France exports to China, Saudi Arabia, Mexico and Syria + more France is the largest variable in EU wheat exports

21 INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT United States & France Wheat = a staple crop and significant in international food development efforts U.S. and France are huge producers, both of these countries are involved in helping with international development International Wheat Yield Partnership (CIMMYT) o Work to reduce poverty and improve food security in developing countries

22 FOOD SECURITY United States Donates more food aid than the rest of the world combined 2011 – 46% of all U.S. food aid was wheat Through the USDA, the U.S. is a member of the Wheat Initiative France Also a member of the Wheat Initiative through their French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA) Wheat Initiative: Coordinates global wheat research to make progress needed to increase quality, yields and sustainability of wheat to contribute to global food security and safety



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