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Electric Motors Types of Electric Motors

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1 Electric Motors Types of Electric Motors
North Seattle Community College HVAC Program Instructor – Mark T. Weber, M.Ed., CMHE Elec motors - 2

2 Objectives After studying this unit, you should be able to:
Describe the different types of open single-phase motors used to drive fans, compressors, and pumps Describe the applications of the various types of motors State which motors have high starting torque

3 Objectives (cont’d.) List the components that cause a motor to have a higher starting torque Describe a multispeed permanent split-capacitor motor and indicate how the different speeds are obtained Explain the operation of a three-phase motor Describe a motor used for a hermetic compressor

4 Objectives (cont’d.) Explain the motor terminal connections in various compressors Describe the different types of compressors that use hermetic motors Describe the use of variable-speed motors

5 Uses of Electric Motors
Used to turn fans, pumps, compressors Facilitate the circulation of air, water, refrigerant, and other fluids Motors are designed for particular applications The correct motor must always be used Most motors operate on similar principles

6 Fans are used to move air
Pumps are used to move liquids

7 Parts of an Electric Motor
Stator with motor windings: stationary portion of the motor Rotor: rotating portion of the motor Bearings: allow free rotation of the shaft End bells: supports bearings and/or shaft Housing: holds all motor components together and facilitates motor mounting

8 Parts of an Electric Motor (cont’d.)
Figure 17–3 Individual electric motor parts

9 Electric Motors and Magnetism
Electricity and magnetism are used to create rotation Stator has insulated windings called run windings Rotor may be constructed of bars Squirrel cage rotor; positioned between the run windings Rotor turns within the magnetic field

10 Figure 17–4 Poles (north and south) on a rotating magnet will line up with the opposite poles on a stationary magnet

11 Determining Motor Speed
As the number of poles increases, the motor speed decreases Motor Speed (rpm) = Frequency x 120 ÷ # of poles In the United States, the frequency is 60 Hz For example, a two-pole motor will turn at a speed of 60 x 120 ÷ 2 = 7200 ÷ 2 = 3600 rpm

12 Determining Motor Speed (cont’d.)
The motor will turn at a speed that is lower than the calculated value Slip = difference between calculated and actual motor speed

13 Start Windings Enables the motor to start and in the right direction
Start winding has higher resistance than the run winding Wound with more turns Wound with smaller diameter wire Removed from the active circuit once the motor starts

14 Starting and Running Characteristics
List of characteristics: Refrigeration compressors have high starting torque Starting torque: twisting force that starts the motor Locked Rotor Amperage (LRA) Full Load Amperage (FLA) Rated Load Amperage (RLA) Motor may start with unequal pressures across it

15 Electrical Power Supplies
Residences are furnished with single-phase power Houses can be supplied power from the transformer Power feeds into circuit breaker panel or fuse box

16 Electrical Power Supplies (cont’d.)
Circuit breakers protect each individual circuit Power is distributed throughout the house Typical residential panels provide 115 and 230 volts Commercial and industrial facilities require three-phase power

17 Figure 17–11 A wiring diagram of a main circuit breaker panel for a typical residence

18 Single-Phase Open Motors
Residential motors operate at 115, 208, or 230V Commercial motors operate at voltages up to 460V Some motors are designed to operate at one of two different voltage (dual voltage motors) Dual voltage motors are wired differently for each voltage Some motors have reversible rotations

19 Figure 17–14 The wiring diagram of a dual-voltage motor
Figure 17–14 The wiring diagram of a dual-voltage motor. This motor is designed to operate at either 115 V or 230 V, depending on how the motor is wired in the field (A) A 230-V wiring diagram (B) A 115-V wiring diagram

20 Split-Phase Motors Two separate motor windings Good running efficiency
Medium amount of starting torque Speed typically ranges from 1800 – 3600 rpm Motor speed is determined by the number of poles Slip is the difference between the calculated and actual motor speeds

21 Split-Phase Motors (cont’d.)
Figure 17–16 Diagram of the start and run windings

22 The Centrifugal Switch
Commonly used on open motors to de-energize the start winding Opens its contacts when the motor reaches about 75% of its rated speed When the contacts open and close, a spark is created (arcing) Not used in a refrigerant atmosphere

23 The Electronic Relay Used to open the start windings after the motor has started Solid-state device designed to open the start winding circuit when the design speed has been obtained

24 Capacitor-Start Motors
Split phase motor with start and run windings Start capacitor assists the motor starting by increasing the starting torque Start capacitor is wired in series with the motor’s start winding Start capacitor is removed from the circuit when the start winding is removed Start capacitor increases the phase angle

25 Capacitor-Start Motors (cont’d.)
Figure 17–22 Wiring diagram of a capacitor-start motor

26 Capacitor-Start, Capacitor-Run Motors
Most efficient single-phase motor Often used with belt-driven fans and blowers Run capacitor improves running efficiency Run capacitor is in the circuit whenever the motor is energized Start and run capacitors are wired in parallel Motor amperage will rise if run capacitor goes bad

27 Capacitor-Start, Capacitor-Run Motors (cont’d.)
Figure 17–23 Wiring diagram of a capacitor-start, capacitor-run motor. The start capacitor is in the circuit only during motor start-up, whereas the run capacitor is in the circuit whenever the motor is energized

28 Permanent Split Capacitor (PSC) Motors
Simplest split-phase motor Only a run capacitor is used Low starting torque and good running efficiency Can be single or multispeed motors, and multispeeds have leads for each speed As resistance decreases, motor speed increases As resistance increases, motor speed decreases

29 Permanent Split Capacitor (PSC) Motors (cont’d.)
Figure 17–27 This diagram shows how the windings of a three speed PSC motor are configured. As the winding resistance increases, the motor speed decreases

30 Shaded-Pole Motors Very low starting torque
Not as efficient as the PSC motor A portion of the run winding is shaded to provide the imbalance in magnetic field that allows the motor to start Heavy copper wire or bands are used to shade the run winding Manufactured in the fractional horsepower range

31 Figure 17–29 Wiring diagram of a shaded-pole motor

32 Three-Phase Motors Normally used on commercial applications
Must have a three-phase power supply Has no start winding or capacitors Very high starting torque Rotation of motor can be changed by switching any two power legs

33 Three-Phase Motor (cont’d.)
Figure 17–32 (A) Diagram of a three-phase power supply (B) Diagram of a typical, single-speed, three-phase motor

34 Single-Phase Hermetic Motors
Hermetically sealed from outside air Similar to single-phase motors Use relays to remove start winding They do not use centrifugal switches Use run capacitors for increased efficiency Designed to operate in a refrigerant atmosphere Motor terminals identified as common, start & run

35 The Potential Relay Used on motors requiring high starting torque
Coil with very high resistance Normally closed contacts Relay operates on the induced voltage across the start winding The contacts open when the induced voltage rises; when the induced voltage drops, the relay contacts close

36 (A) (B) (C) Figure (A) A potential relay with its packaging box (B) Internals of a potential relay showing the coil and contacts (C) Diagram illustrating the higher induced voltage that is measured across the start winding in a typical motor

37 The Current Relay Used on fractional horsepower motors
Used with fixed-orifice metering devices Low resistance coil in series with the run winding Normally open contacts in series with start winding Upon startup, only the run winding is energized

38 The Current Relay (cont’d.)
The motor draws locked rotor amperage The increased amperage closes the relay contacts The start winding is energized and the motor starts The amperage drops and the relay contacts open

39 Figure 17–39 Wiring diagram of a current magnetic relay
Figure 17–39 Wiring diagram of a current magnetic relay. The “L” indicates line voltage, the “M” refers the main, or run, winding, and the “S” refers to the start winding. The coil is connected between the “L” and “M” terminals, whereas the relay contacts are connected between the “L” and “S” terminals

40 Positive Temperature Coefficient Resistors (PTCRs)
Compressor starting devices that are resistors that vary their resistance when their surrounding temperature changes Have a low resistance over a wide temperature range Used often in the HVACR industry in place of current and potential relays

41 Two-Speed Compressor Motors
Used to control capacity of compressors Speed changes made by wiring changes The thermostat controls the wiring changes Two compressors in one housing One motor turns at 1800 rpm; the other at 3600 Two-speed compressors have more than three motor terminals

42 Special Application Motors
Facts: Some single-speed motors have: More than three motor terminals Auxiliary compressor windings to increase the motor efficiency Have winding thermostats wired through the compressor shell Three-phase motors have one thermostat for each winding, wired in series

43 Three-Phase Compressor Motors
Used in large commercial/industrial applications Normally have three motor terminals No capacitors are required Same resistance across each winding High starting torque Some larger three-phase compressor motors operate as dual voltage device

44 Variable Speed Motors Motor speed decreases during low load conditions
Voltage/frequency determine motor speed New motors controlled by electronic circuits Variable speed DC motors; ECM DC motors Can ramp up/down to reduce motor wear AC current can be converted to DC using rectifiers

45 DC Converters (Rectifiers)
Phase-controlled rectifier Converts ac power to dc power Uses silicon controlled rectifiers and transistors Capacitors smooth out the dc voltage

46 Rectifiers (cont’d.) Diode bridge rectifier
Does not regulate the dc voltage Diodes are not controllable Voltage and frequency are adjusted at the inverter

47 Inverters and Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs)
Vary frequency to obtain desired speed Six-step inverter Receives voltage from the converter Can control the voltage or the current Pulse width modulator (PWM) Receives fixed dc voltage from converter Short pulses at low speed; long pulses at high speed

48 Electronically Commutated Motors (ECM)
Used on open drive fans less than 1 hp Armature commutated with permanent magnets Motors are factory calibrated Two-piece motor: motor section and controls Motor can be checked with an ohmmeter Controls can be checked with a test module Defective controls can be replaced

49 Cooling Electric Motors
All motors must be cooled Hermetic compressor motor are cooled by air and refrigerant Open motors are cooled by air Open motors must be located where there is a good supply of air Some very large motors are cooled by water

50 Summary Motors facilitate the circulation of air, water, refrigerant and other fluids Some applications require high starting torque Motor components include the housing, rotor, stator, end bells, bearings, and motor mount

51 Summary (cont’d.) Electricity and magnetism create motor rotation
Motor speed is determined by the number of poles The start winding has higher resistance than the run winding Important motor amperage are LRA, FLA, and RLA

52 Summary (cont’d.) Residences are supplied with single-phase power
Some motors are designed to operate at more than one voltage Split phase motors have a medium amount of starting torque and good running efficiency

53 Summary (cont’d.) The centrifugal switch opens and closes its contacts depending on the speed of the motor The current relay opens and closes its contacts depending on the current flow through the run winding

54 Summary (cont’d.) The potential relay opens and closes its contacts depending on the induced voltage across the start winding Capacitor start motors use start capacitors to increase the starting torque of the motor

55 Summary (cont’d.) The start winding and start capacitor are removed from the circuit after the motor starts Capacitor start, capacitor run motors use both start and run capacitors Run capacitors help increase the motor’s running efficiency

56 Summary (cont’d.) The PSC motor uses only a run capacitor
The shaded pole motor has very low starting torque Three-phase motors are used for commercial and industrial applications

57 Summary (cont’d.) The PTC and NTC are electronic devices that change their resistance as the sensed temperature changes Variable speed motors ramp up and down, often using dc converters, inverters and rectifiers ECM motors are commutated with permanent magnets

58 For more information please contact Mark T. Weber At
North Seattle Community College

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