Lymphocytic – Acute – Chronic Myelogenous – Acute – Chronic Acute form of any disease progress rapidly and Chronic form progress slowly.
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. In ALL unusually immature white blood cells grow quickly and replace normal, healthy blood cells and prevent the production of these.
It is more common type of leukemia of all blood cancers almost 25%, in children. Infants having ALL are 4 times and youth of 19 years old are 10 times more than children of ages of 2-3 among all children. It also affects adults. There are almost 5,000 patients of ALL appeared each other.
Exposure to radiation: Prenatal exposure to x-ray, postnatal exposure to high radiation. Chromosomal problems: Chromosomal translocation in the cells at the time of birth causes ALL. Toxins: Like benzene. Chemotherapeutic drugs.
Formation of fusion genes Dysregulation of proto-oncogene
Children having Down syndrome have an increased risk for both ALL and Acute Myeloid Leukemia. Associated with the diseases of Neurofibromatosis, Shwachman syndrome, Bloom syndrome and Ataxia telangiectasia.
Chromosome translocation; between 9 and 22( Philadelphia chromosome, 4 and 11 in infants.
Breathlessness. Pitting edema (swelling) in the lower limbs and abdomen. Bone pain and joint pain because of the spread of blast cells to the surface of bone or into the joint from the marrow cavity. Patients of it also have easy bruising and bleeding from the different parts of the body such as skin, gums, nose. Fever. Tiredness and weakness. Less appetite and weight loss. Petechia means tiny red spots or lines on the skin due to less in platelets. Swollen lymph glands (lymphadenopathy) of underarm, neck and groin. Night sweats.
Chemotherapy: ALL can spread to the spinal cord and brain so chemotherapeutics which are given through the vein cannot reach these parts of the body so we give chemotherapeutics directly to these areas. Radiotherapy: We also do radiotherapy in the brain and spinal column. Blood transfusion: Patient due to anaemia may need blood products transfusion like RBCs and platelets. Antibiotics: As patients of ALL have many infections so antibiotics are needed.
If patients do not respond other treatments and experience again onset of ALL then usually patients are given stem cells transplantation or bone marrow transplantation. Major interest of biotechnologists.
There is almost no known way to prevent it. But we should avoid unnecessary exposure to x-rays and toxins also We should immediately consult the doctor if having some kind of above mentioned symptoms. Also the people having family history of any kind of blood cancer have to be very careful and share their family medical history with the doctors.
This type of Leukemia progress slowly. In it also white blood cells or lymphocytes are abnormally increase.
It doesn't affect children. The patients of 65 are found abundantly. Under the age of 40 are very rare. Common in men than women. 15,000 new cases of CLL each year.
Exposure to toluene, benzene and x-ray Having family history of any kind of blood cancer Chemotherapeutic drugs Exposure to radiation: Prenatal exposure to x-ray, postnatal exposure to high radiation.
Fever. Night sweats. Repeated infections. Tiredness and weakness. Weight loss and appetite. Enlarged lymph gland (which are painless) especially in the neck, armpit and groin. In some patients an enlarged spleen found and it can cause pain.
When patients become anaemic or have many enlarged lymph glands. Then treatments is necessary.
Chemotherapy: – Chlorambucil (leukerin) is usually given. – Fludarebine (Fludara) in late stage diseases. – In bone marrow failure steroid treatment with Prednisolone (e.g., Deltacordril) – In Milder bone marrow failure repeated blood transfusion.
Radiotherapy: To cure swollen lymph nodes. In many small repeated doses are given to the whole body. Surgical removal: Sometimes spleen swells so much causing pain and anaemia. So, surgical removal of spleen becomes must. Antibiotics: Repeated infections.
Stem cell transplantation In those patients who are under the age of 45 and have severe form of CLL. Major interest of biotechnologists
As the causes of CLL is still unknown so there is no certain way to prevent it But avoidE the exposure to toluene benzene and x-rays Immediately consult the doctor People having family history of any kind of blood cancer have to be very careful and share their family medical history
Individually In collaboration with the research institutes in Canada, Germany, U.S, China ASH (American Society of Hematology) AACR (American Associates for Cancer Research)
Web references: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth www.netdoctor.co.uk www.medicinenet.com/leukemia/page3 www.hematology.org/patients/Blood-Disorders/Blood-Cancers/5229.aspx http://www.defence.pk/forums/current-events-social-issues/94389- pakistani-scientist-s-research-leukemia-recognized-ash.html Primary references: www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=13660 www.emedicine.medscape.com/article/207631-overview http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1988840/ Book reference: Klaus D. Elgert, Immunology understanding the immune system. Second edition; A John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Publication 2009. Page 29.