Presentation on theme: "1 Introduction to Present Perfect How long have you lived in the United States? How long have you been here?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Introduction to Present Perfect How long have you lived in the United States? How long have you been here?
2 All sentences have verbs. Minimum--one verb in every sentence-- Many people work in the afternoon. Sergio works in a club. Marta worked yesterday. Sometimes the verb has more than one part. A few people are working tonight. A few people will work tonight.
3 Review: About Present Simple present tense ↔ discuss something that is a general fact or happens now Ludy and Lily study at CLC. Present continuous ↔ discuss something that is happening at the moment (AND for future.) Maria is paying attention to her teacher. Bayardo is working this afternoon. Try It! Write a sentence in the present. ________________________________________
4 Review: About Past #1 Simple past tense ↔ discuss something that finished in the past. Carmen studied English in California. Ingrid met her husband in Venezuela. Anna came to the U.S. when she was a child. Try It! Write a sentence in the simple past. ___________________________________
5 Review: About Past #2 Past continuous ↔ discuss something that happened in the past, at the same time as another event happened, and continued during the time of that event. I was driving when I heard a news report about the sheriff in Waukegan. Try It! Write a sentence with the past continuous. _________________________
6 Using Present Perfect Present perfect ↔ discuss something that started in the past and continues now. (We use present perfect in other ways, too, but this is one important way.) We have practiced grammar since the first day of our class. We have studied together for more than a month.
7 About Verb Parts All verbs have different parts or forms. Base form ↔ the way the verb is in the dictionary (We use this in some present tense forms.) talk, help, do, say, have, be Past tense form talked, helped, did, said, had, was/were –ing form ↔ present participle talking, helping, doing, saying, having, being
8 Past Participles Another form = the past participle. Use it in present perfect. Most of the time, this form looks exactly like the past tense, but NOT all the time For example: talked, helped, had, said, told BUT….done, gone, been, given, known Find a list of irregular past participles in many grammar books or in a dictionary.
9 Try It! Forms of the Past Participle What are the past participles of these verbs? Look = Say = Find = Make = Go = Try It! Write another verb and its past participle __________________________
10 Present and Past Participles When you use the present OR the past participle as the main, most important, verb in your sentence, you must combine it with another verb. It CAN’T be alone. Present participle example: We are learning some grammar rules now, and we were learning different ones last week.
11 Form of Present Perfect We use have or has and the past participle to form the present perfect. Maria has lived in Lake county for a long time. Anna and Suzanne have taught English for more than 20 years. How long have you studied English? Vicky has not gone to Chicago since August.
12 Form of the Present Perfect, #2 We can use contractions with the present perfect: I have studied. = I’ve studied. You have studied. = You’ve studied. He has studied. = He’s studied. She has studied. = She’s studied. We have studied. = We’ve studied. They have studied = They’ve studied.
13 Form of the Present Perfect, #2 Examples of contractions with the present perfect: He’s been here since 8 a.m. We’ve studied together since August 25. They haven’t gone to the Fitness Center. She hasn’t seen many movies in English. Try It! Write a sentence in present perfect with a contraction. ____________________
14 Using the Present Perfect-#2-Review A common way to use present perfect ↔ discuss something that started in the past and still continues. Carolina and Olga have sat at the same table since the beginning of our class. = Carolina and Olga sat at the same table before today and still sit there now, and they started to sit there at the beginning of our class.
15 Using the Present Perfect, #3 Another example: A: How long have you worked here? B:I’ve worked in this company for about 5 years. A:Have you had the same job all that time? B:No, I haven’t. I got a promotion two years ago, and I’ve worked as a team leader since then.
16 Try It! Present Perfect Write a sentence. Use present perfect. If you want, you can answer these questions in a whole sentence. Where have you lived? Where have you sat in this class? What homework have you done? _____________________________________
17 Present Perfect with for Present perfect with for ↔ to explain how long something has happened, what amount or period of time. Some people have studied for eighteen years. (They started to study in 1996, and they still study now.) Some people have studied at CLC for more than 3 semesters. Other people have studied at CLC for only a short time. Most people who have had legal permanent residence in the U.S. for at least 5 years can apply to be U.S. citizens.
18 Try It! Use for in your answer. How long have you studied here? How long has Anna been a teacher? How long have you driven?
19 Present Perfect with since Present perfect with since ↔ to explain the starting time of something. I’ve driven a car since 1981. (I started to drive in 1981, and I still drive now.) You have worn a tee shirt every day since the beginning of the semester. She has asked a question in class every day since our first day in August.
20 Present Perfect with since, #2 We can put a little sentence after since to explain when something began. I’ve taught English since my younger son was 6 weeks old. Katie has taught English at CLC since our program began. Daniel has known his best friend since they were in elementary school. What have you done since I saw you last?
21 Try It! Use since in your answer. How long have you known Anna? How long have you lived at your current address? How long have you been able to write?
22 Present Perfect Don’t knock it until you’ve tried it!