Communication Process Public Speaking: An interactive process Each speech has a purpose: 1. Introduce 2. Share 3. Convince, Persuade 4. Celebrate
Six Elements of Public Speaking 1. Speaker Audience centered believe message will inspire critical, creative thought about topic Establish credibility be likeable, believable, trustworthy 2. Message Clear follow a design, strategy. Attractive word choice, visual aids 3. Occasion Why we speak Where we speak
Six Elements of Public Speaking 4. Audience Listeners, non-listeners 5. Interference Distraction, disruption 6. Feedback Audience Cues (eye contact) Are they getting it or not? Leaning forward… can they hear you? Look confused….do they follow? Frowning, heads shaking… do they agree? Smiling, nodding in agreement….. You are on the right track!
Responsible Knowledge You won’t be an expert on all topics, but… 1. Know the main points of concern 2. Understand what experts believe 3. Acknowledge different points of view (fairness, equality of argument) 4. Be current with your knowledge 5. Realize how topics may affect your classmates
Responsible Communication 1. Quoting out of context Cite experts to support your message, but don’t twist their words! Don’t use their words to support something they wouldn’t agree with. Example: using Dr. King’s “I have a dream” speech to reverse reforms that help Black minorities 2. Academic Dishonesty Plagiarism: presenting ideas or words of other people… not your own work!!! Patchwork Plagiarism: using parts from many different sources as your own. Use research to support (so you must cite), but words should be your own!!! See Avoiding plagiarism table, pg 28
Speech Anxiety Rate from 1-5, 1 being least comfortable and 5 to most comfortable.
Anxiety Relief Tech #1: Reality Testing What has happened, will likely happen, and how bad would it be if it actually did? 1. Embarrassing yourself You’ll get over it, and so will they 2. Mind will go blank Typical of memorized speeches…. So don’t memorize! Prepare outline, practice.. practice…practice.. Conversational speech
Reality Testing Continued.. 3. Unfinished speech Panic attack… just talk through… Face your fear. 4. Shaking You think they can see it, but they can’t 5. Pronunciation mistakes Native speakers and ESL learners, Listeners aren’t waiting for you to fail, but want you to succeed. 6. Failing the Class Your speeches won’t be perfect, but you won’t fail Try your best, use techniques we learn in class! Make a clear outline, and you will succeed.
Tech #2: Selective Relaxation Find a quiet place by yourself Close your eyes, breathe deeply (in through your nose, out through your mouth) Let your mind drift freely Tense and relax different muscles, starting from your feet to you head. Practice several times a day, before bed, then you can use it anywhere!
Technique #3: Attitude Adjustment Move from “ego-centered” to: 1. Other-centered Think about your audience, how are you helping them with your speech, what ae you giving them? 2. Message-centered Choose a meaningful topic, learn all you can about it 3. Communication-centered Focus on the interaction/balance of the elements Speaker Message Audience
Technique #4: Cognitive Restructuring Don’t think negatively, think positively! Don’t think negatively, think positively! List your negative thoughts, and change them to positive statements.
Technique #5: Visualization Visualize yourself as a successful speaker Visualize yourself as a successful speaker Keep your goal in mind: Keep your goal in mind: 1. Reach your listeners 2. Communicate your message effectively 3. Communicate enthusiastically Pg. 41, figure 2: Coping with your concerns
Ten Ways to Control Anxiety 1. Select a topic that excites you 2. Research carefully and organize 3. Master your topic; speak with authority 4. Practice to flow smoothly 5. Focus on audience 6. Learn how to relax on command 7. Think positively 8. Visualize success 9. Act confident, even if you aren’t 10. Take other opportunities to speak in public