Presentation on theme: "American Revolutionary War 1775-1783 - Unit 5. First Continental Congress O In 1774 delegates met in Philadelphia to decide what to do about the situation."— Presentation transcript:
First Continental Congress O In 1774 delegates met in Philadelphia to decide what to do about the situation. O 56 delegates including John and Samuel Adams. O One delegate wanted to make peace. O Patrick Henry said there was no way to avoid a fight. O In the end they reached a compromise – O They decided to continue to boycott British goods and warned colonial militias to be ready to fight. O They sent delegates to the king asking for basic rights. O The king refused.
John Adams O Lawyer and politician O Defended British soldiers after the Boston Massacre O Represented Massachusetts in the Congress O Strong supporter for independence
Thomas Paine O Wrote a pamphlet called Common Sense O It was written in common language and distributed throughout the colonies O Urged colonists to break free from Britain
“The British are Coming!” O Local militia members began calling themselves minutemen because they would be ready at a minute’s notice. O Much of the weapons and ammunition were stored in Concord. O A British general decided to go raid the ammunition. O The Sons of Liberty learned of the plan. O Sent men riding ahead to warn the minutemen.
Paul Revere O Paul Revere rode ahead to warn the minutemen. O Many people made rides warning of the British coming.
The “Shot Heard round the World” O The minutemen beat the British to the ammunition. O They decided to make a line at Lexington to stop the British. O The first shot of the Revolutionary War. O The British marched on to Concord, few weapons remained.
Choosing Sides O Patriots – fought for independence from Britain O Loyalist/Tories – remained loyal to Britain O Neutrals – chose neither side
Second Continental Congress O In 1775 representatives from 12 colonies met in Philadelphia again. O They had to decide how to react to the fighting. O Congress made plans to create a Continental Army – chose George Washington to command the army. O One last attempt at peace – Olive Branch Petition – King rejected the offer
George Washington O A soldier in the French and Indian War O Delegate to the First and Second Continental Congress O Commander-in-chief of the Continental Army throughout the Revolutionary War
Second Continental Congress O 1776 the Congress created a committee to write a document declaring independence from Britain. O In reaction to King George III’s refusal to acknowledge the colonial requests O John Adams, Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson were among others in the committee. O Wrote the Articles of Confederation which would serve as a new form of government for the young country.
Thomas Jefferson O A delegate to the First and Second Continental Congress O A member of the committee to write the Declaration of Independence O Primary author of the Declaration of Independence
Declaration of Independence O July 4, 1776 O “All men are created equal” O Discussed unalienable rights – which are basic rights guaranteed to people naturally O These rights included – life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness O Listed grievances against the King of England
Grievances listed in the Declaration of Independence O Taxation without representation O King has absolute power O Colonists not allowed to speak out against King O Quartering Act forced colonists to house troops O Allowed homes to be searched without a warrant O No trial by jury of peers
Washington Crossing the Delaware. (Battle of Trenton)
Saratoga O Considered a major turning point of the war O France joined the colonists after this battle. O This tipped the scale in favor of the colonists
Benjamin Franklin O He spent most of the Revolutionary war in France O He represented the colonies O He negotiated an alliance with France O He negotiated the Treaty of Paris which ended the war
Winter at Valley Forge O After suffering several defeats, Washington took his army to Valley Forge for the winter of 1777. O Many of the men suffered frostbite and starvation O The men were trained by a Prussian officer into a more professional army.
Victory at Yorktown O Final battle of the Revolutionary War O The battle lasted for weeks O The surrender of General Cornwallis brought an end to the war
Treaty of Paris 1783 O Independence formally recognized by Britain O New borders established O North to Canada O West to the Mississippi River