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Chapter 4 Typography.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 Typography."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4 Typography

2 Objectives (1 of 2) Differentiate among calligraphy, lettering, and typography. Gain knowledge of type definitions and nomenclature. Learn about type measurement, basic type specifications, and classifications of type. Identify parts of letters. Pick up the basic principles of designing with type. Understand the interrelated visual factors involved in typographic design.

3 Objectives (2 of 2) Become familiar with three types of spacing.
Learn design considerations of form, direct and secondary meanings, and graphic impact. Consider the relationship of type and visuals. Use type creatively and expressively. Acquire tips on type from esteemed professionals.

4 Typographic Definitions (1 of 3)
Typography The design of letterforms and the arrangement of them in two-dimensional space (for print) and in space and time (for digital media)

5 Typographic Definitions (2 of 3)
Letterform The particular style and form of each individual letter of our alphabet Each letter of an alphabet has unique characteristics that must be preserved to retain the legibility of the symbols as representing sounds of speech. Used by designers in three primary forms: Calligraphy – drawn by hand, it a stroke or strokes of a drawing instrument, literally “beautiful writing”. Lettering – letters that are custom designed and executed by conventional drawing or by digital means. Typography – letterforms produced mechanically, usually with a computer.

6 Typographic Definitions (3 of 3)
Typeface The design of a single set of letterforms, numerals, and signs unified by consistent visual properties These properties create the essential character, which remains recognizable even if the face is modified by design. Type style Modifications in a typeface that create design variety while retaining the essential visual character of the face

7 The Type Family Chart By Martin Holloway

8 The Typographic Font Chart
By Martin Holloway

9 Letterforms Terms Chart
By Martin Holloway

10 Metal Type Terms Chart By Martin Holloway

11 Classifications of Type Chart
By Martin Holloway

12 Examples of Typefaces

13 The Principles of Design Applied to Type: Emphasis
When typographic elements are arranged according to emphasis, most often there is a focal point. When creating emphasis with typography, consider: Position Rhythm Color contrast Size contrast Weights of the type Initial caps Roman vs. italic

14 Type Alignment The primary type alignment options are as follows:
Flush left/ragged right: text that aligns on the left side and is uneven on the right side Justified: text that aligns on the left and right sides Flush right/ragged left: text that aligns on the right side and is uneven on the left side Centered: lines of type centered on an imaginary central vertical axis Asymmetrical: lines composed for asymmetrical balance — not conforming to a set, repetitive arrangement

15 The Principles of Design Applied to Type: Unity
To establish unity in a typographic design, consider: Choose typefaces that complement each other. Use contrasting styles, faces, and weights, rather than using similar faces. Typefaces with pronounced or exaggerated design characteristics seldom mix well. Avoid mixing two or more sans serif typefaces in a design. Establish harmonious size relationships. Determine how the size and choice of typefaces will work with the visuals. Establish correspondence and alignment.

16 Spacing The three types of spacing to control Letter spacing
The space between letters Word spacing The space between words Line spacing The distance between lines of type

17 Type and Expression How to use type creatively and expressively?
Type is often verbal, but it can also be visual when it expresses the entire message

18 Designing with Type Consider four (4) main points, in order to design with type : Type as form Type as a direct message (primary meaning) The secondary meaning (connotation) of type Graphic impact

19 Form Each letterform is made up of +ve and –ve forms
They create visual interest The strokes of the letterform are the +ve forms The spatial areas created and shaped by the letterform are the –ve forms When two letterforms are next to each other, -ve forms are created in between them (counterforms)

20 Direct Message To read the message easily, consider the following :
Typefaces have individual spirits or personality Type also has a voice (can scream or whisper)

21 Graphic Impact Consider the aesthetics (underlying beauty of
typography) So graphic impact is a better term because people could not agree on what beauty is To determine graphic impact : - Measure the texture or color of the solution Determine the appropriateness of the style for the client, the message and the audience

22 Summary (1 of 2) Typography is the design of letterforms and the arrangement of them in two-dimensional space (for print) and in space and time (for digital media). For both print and digital media, visual communication professionals must consider some fundamental issues of form and structure, design, message/content, and expression. Learn to differentiate among letterforms. Understand how letterforms are structured as well as generated.

23 Summary (2 of 2) When arranging typographic elements, you should consider balance, emphasis, rhythm, unity, positive and negative space, and the manipulation of graphic space to create illusion. Consider the interrelated visual factors of visual weight, position, and arrangement. Consider form, direct and secondary meanings, and graphic impact. Considering the subtle, precise relationship of type and visuals in a design solution is crucial to creating visual messages with impact. It is essential to understand how type can be used creatively and expressively.

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