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United States Imperialism At the Turn of the Century (1867-1917)

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Presentation on theme: "United States Imperialism At the Turn of the Century (1867-1917)"— Presentation transcript:

1 United States Imperialism At the Turn of the Century (1867-1917)

2 Spanish American War By the end of the 19 th Century, Spain had lost most of its colonies. It retained only the Philippines, Guam, Cuba and Puerto Rico U.S. had long been interested in Cuba. In 1854, the U.S. offered to buy Cuba from Spain and was rejected. When Cubans rebelled against Spanish rule between 1868 and 1878, American sympathies were with the Cubans Though Cuban revolts were not successful, American businessmen began investing millions of dollars in Cuban sugar cane plantations Jose Marti Cuban poet and journalist

3 Spanish American War Jose Marti, a Cuban poet, journalist and exile living in the United States launched a revolution against Spanish rule in 1895 He organized resistance through guerilla campaigns in which American businesses were destroyed in Cuba. Marti was hoping that the U.S. would enter into the revolution on behalf of a “Free Cuba” In 1896, Spain responded by sending a ruthless general, Valeriano Weyler to Cuba in order to restore order. He had over 300,000 Cubans sent to concentration camps where thousands died from hunger and disease. Jose Marti Cuban poet and journalist

4 Spanish American War Weyler’s actions helped fuel a circulation war between William Randolph Hearst’s New York Journal and Joseph Pulitzer’s New York World. Both newspapers introduced sensational, exaggerated stories to sell newspapers. This became known as “yellow journalism”. Artist Frederick Remington was sent to Cuba by Hearst to draw pictures. Remington informed Hearst that a war seemed unlikely. Hearst responded: “you furnish the pictures and I’ll furnish the war”. William Randolph Hearst

5 Spanish American War American sympathy for a free Cuba grew. When William McKinley became president, he convinced Spain to recall General Weyler, end concentration camps, and offer Cuba limited self- government In February 1898, the New York Journal published a letter written by Enrique de Lome, the Spanish foreign minister to the U.S. The letter referred to McKinley as being “weak”. U.S. President William McKinley

6 Spanish American War Early in 1898, McKinley had ordered the U.S.S. Maine to Cuba in order to bring American businessmen home who were in danger of the fighting and to protect American property On February 15, 1898 the ship blew up in Havana harbor and 260 men were killed. American newspapers blamed the Spanish who had planted mines in the harbor. “Remember the Maine” began to be the battle cry for imperialists who wanted war. Despite the Spanish agreeing to American terms for peace, President McKinley asked for a declaration of war against Spain. On April 20, 1898 war was declared.

7 Spanish American War First battle of the war took place in the Philippines. On May 1, the American fleet led by Admiral George Dewey opened fire on the Spanish fleet at Manila Within hours, every ship of the Spanish fleet had been destroyed This cleared the way for American troops to enter the Philippines and join forces with Filipino freedom fighters led by Emilio Aguinaldo

8 Spanish American War The U.S. army was not equipped to fight a war About 125,000 Americans volunteered to fight New soldiers were sent to train in Florida; they lacked supplies and effective leaders; they were forced to wear heavy woolen uniforms that were not suited for Cuba’s climate American forces landed in Cuba in June 1898 The army of 17000 included the Rough Riders, a voluntary cavalry under the leadership of Theodore Roosevelt who had resigned his position as Assistant Secretary of the Navy to fight The most famous land battle took place near Santiago on July 1 near Kettle Hill; the Rough Riders led a dramatic uphill charge

9 Spanish American War The victory by the Rough Riders cleared the way for an infantry attack on San Juan Hill U.S. newspapers would declare Roosevelt the hero of San Juan Hill Two days later the Spanish fleet was defeated off the coast of Cuba; the U.S. invaded Puerto Rico On August 12, an armistice was signed between Spain and the U.S. ending what Secretary of State John Hay called “a splendid little war” The Treaty of Paris was agreed to on December 10, 1898; in the treaty, Spain freed Cuba and turned over the islands of Guam and Puerto Rico to the U.S.; Spain also sold the Philippines to the U.S. for $20 million America had an empire

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