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Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry

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Presentation on theme: "Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry"— Presentation transcript:

1 Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry
Properties of Metals Properties of Metals

2 Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry
Properties of Metals

3 Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry
Uses of metals Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry Properties of Metals How many different uses of metal can you spot? Teacher notes This illustration contains several items made from metals and alloys, including: car: made from steel, aluminium and other metals plane: made from titanium golf clubs: made from steel and titanium band instruments: made from brass, an alloy of copper and zinc Zimmer frame: made from aluminium (the person using the Zimmer frame also has a titanium hip replacement) horse shoes: made from wrought iron frying pan: made from stainless steel jewellery: made from gold and gold alloys drinks can: made from aluminium mobile phone: made from various metals spectacles: made from shape memory alloy wheelchair: made from aluminium bench: made from iron and steel recycling bin: metal is a relatively easy material to recycle.

4 Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry
The value of metals Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry Properties of Metals Metals are a highly valuable group of materials, used for hundreds of products and produced in huge quantities. 36,900,000 tons of aluminium were produced in 2009. The production of copper increased by more than 20 times in the 20th century. Gold is worth more than £27,000 per kilogram. Teacher notes Data sourced from: These weblinks were working correctly at the time of publication. Boardworks takes no responsibility for the content of external websites. Image credit: © Reshavsky, 2011 Shutterstock.com Metals have played a vital role in human development. Periods of civilization are even classified by the metals that were used during those times, such as the Iron Age.

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Properties of metals Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry Properties of Metals Typical metals have a lot of physical properties in common. They: are lustrous (shiny) are malleable (can be bent and pressed into different shapes) and ductile (can be drawn into wires) are hard and strong have a high density are good conductors of heat and electricity have high melting and boiling points (except mercury, which is liquid at room temperature).

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Au, Al, Cu, Fe and Ti Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry Properties of Metals Teacher notes See the Alloys presentation for more information of the different uses of metal alloys, including steel.

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Testing properties Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry Properties of Metals Teacher notes See the Alloys presentation for more information about steel. This slide is accompanied by the worksheet Properties of Metals.

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Other uses of metals Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry Properties of Metals It is easy to find products made from metals, but some uses of metals are not so widely known. Metals are used as catalysts to speed up reactions. Nickel is used as a catalyst to make margarine. Platinum is used in catalytic converters in car exhausts to clean up fumes and reduce pollution. Compounds containing metals have many uses. For example, some metal compounds are used to colour materials such as stained glass, and even make-up. Teacher notes Research has recently been carried out on whether or not installing copper doorknobs in hospitals could stop the spread of the superbug MRSA, because of the antibacterial properties of the metal. For more information, visit This weblink was working correctly at the time of publication. Boardworks takes no responsibility for the content of external websites. Can you find any other uses of metals?

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Building cars Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry Properties of Metals Teacher notes Information will be revealed by clicking on the following areas of the car: bonnet seat tyres rear door windscreen headlights.

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Aluminium or steel? Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry Properties of Metals Aluminium and steel (an alloy of iron) can both be used to make car bodies, but they have some different properties. aluminium steel density? magnetic? corrodes? malleable? low high no yes no yes yes yes Teacher notes See the Extracting Metals by Electrolysis and Extracting Metals by Reduction presentations for more information on the costs involved in the production of aluminium (including the extraction process) and iron for steel. See the Alloys presentation for more information on the uses of steel. Steel is significantly cheaper to produce than aluminium, so a car made from steel will cost a lot less to produce, resulting in a lower purchase price for the consumer.

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Aluminium or steel? Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry Properties of Metals The mass of a car body which is made from aluminium will be less than the mass of a car body made from steel. Using a lighter car body will increase the fuel economy and performance of the car as the engine will have to do less work to make the car move. A car made from steel will rust if the paintwork is damaged or worn, whereas a car made from aluminium will not. However, advances in anti-corrosion coatings mean that with normal use it is a number of years before the body of a steel car usually rusts significantly. This content is higher tier for OCR Gateway GCSE Science. Image credit: © 3D Profi, 2011 Shutterstock.com

12 The importance of properties
Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry Properties of Metals Teacher notes There are no right or wrong answers for this ordering activity, but students should be able to give reasons for their choices. Students could also be asked about factors other than the properties of a metal which determine how it should be used, for example, the cost of the metal, its abundance and its effect on the environment. See the Metals and the Environment presentation for more information on how metals affect the environment.

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Properties of Metals

14 Where are the transition metals?
Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry Properties of Metals The transition metals are the block of elements found between group 2 and group 3 of the periodic table. group 2 group 3 transition metals

15 Common transition metals
Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry Properties of Metals Teacher notes See the presentation Alloys for more information on Nitinol.

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Iron vs. aluminium Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry Properties of Metals Teacher notes Students may need to be reminded that a paramagnetic metal is one that is able to become magnetized.

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Properties of Metals

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What is corrosion? Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry Properties of Metals Corrosion is the gradual destruction of a metal due to reactions with other chemicals in its environment. Over time, corrosion changes the appearance of the metal as it breaks down and becomes weaker. Corrosion can seriously damage metallic objects and structures. Photo credit: © Chris Bradshaw, 2011 Shutterstock.com Coating the surface of a metal with paint and certain chemicals can protect it from corrosion.

19 Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry increasing reactivity
Do all metals corrode? Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry Properties of Metals Metals behave differently when exposed to the environment. potassium increasing reactivity sodium A metal’s resistance to corrosion is related to its position in the reactivity series. The more reactive a metal, the less resistant it is to corrosion. calcium magnesium aluminium zinc iron Gold is an unreactive metal and does not corrode easily. Items made from gold can survive for thousands of years and have even been found in good condition underwater. lead Teacher notes See the presentations Electrolysis of Solutions and Extracting Metals by Electrolysis for more information on the reactivity series. Content on the reactivity series is higher tier for Edexcel GCSE Science. copper silver gold platinum

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What is rusting? Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry Properties of Metals Rusting is the specific name given to the corrosion of iron. It is a chemical reaction between iron, oxygen and water. The chemical name for rust is hydrated iron (III) oxide. Rusting is an example of an oxidation reaction. Oxidation is the addition of oxygen to an element. hydrated iron (III) oxide water + iron oxygen Teacher notes A wider definition of oxidation and reduction is that oxidation is the loss of electrons from a substance and reduction is the gain of electrons to a substance. See the presentations Electrolysis of Solutions and Extracting Metals by Electrolysis for more information on oxidation and reduction. Content on the word equation for rusting is higher tier for OCR Gateway GCSE Science. The opposite process, where oxygen is removed from a compound, is known as reduction. Acid rain and salt can increase the rate of rusting.

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Testing corrosion Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry Properties of Metals

22 Why doesn’t aluminium corrode?
Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry Properties of Metals Aluminium is a very reactive metal. However, it does not corrode in the presence of oxygen. Why is this? oxygen in the atmosphere coating of oxygen atoms aluminium atoms The outer aluminium atoms react with oxygen in the atmosphere to form a thin layer of aluminium oxide on the metal’s surface, which protects the metal from corrosion.

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Properties of Metals

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Glossary Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry Properties of Metals Teacher notes alloy – A mixture containing one or more metal elements. catalyst – Any substance that starts or speeds up a chemical reaction without being affected itself. conductivity – The property that allows an electric current to pass through a substance. corrosion – The gradual destruction of a metal due to reactions with other chemicals in its environment. density – The mass of a substance per unit of volume. ductile – Able to be drawn into wires. fuel economy – The number of miles driven divided by the number of gallons of fuel consumed. Iron Age – The period of time between the Bronze Age and the Roman period (3,000–2,000 years ago) when iron was used to make tools and weapons. lustrous – bright and shiny. malleable – Able to be bent and pressed into different shapes. oxidation – The loss of electrons from a substance. reactivity series – A list of metals in order of reactivity, with the most reactive metal at the top of the list, and the least reactive at the bottom. reduction – The gain of electrons a substance. rusting – The specific name given to the corrosion of iron. transition metals – The block of elements found between group 2 and group 3 of the periodic table.

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Multiple-choice quiz Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry Properties of Metals Teacher notes This multiple-choice quiz could be used as a plenary activity to assess students’ understanding of the properties of metals. The questions can be skipped through without answering by pressing the forward arrow. Students could be asked to complete the questions in their books and the activity could be concluded by the completion on the IWB.


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