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The Constitutional Convention A.Convention in Philly to discuss ways to improve Articles of Confederation 1. Held at Independence Hall Same building where.

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Presentation on theme: "The Constitutional Convention A.Convention in Philly to discuss ways to improve Articles of Confederation 1. Held at Independence Hall Same building where."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Constitutional Convention A.Convention in Philly to discuss ways to improve Articles of Confederation 1. Held at Independence Hall Same building where Americans had officially declared independece

2 The Constitutional Convention B. 55 delegates attend 1. All states except Rhode Island represented 2. Ben Franklin oldest delegate

3 The Constitutional Convention 3. James Madison most important delegate 4. George Washington elected president of convention

4 The Constitutional Convention 5. John Adams and Thomas Jefferson cannot attend – serving as ambassadors overseas

5 The Constitutional Convention 6. No women, African Americans or American Indians

6 The Great Compromise A.Several issues divide delegates at convention 1. Small and large states have different concerns

7 The Great Compromise 2. States have different views on slavery What states would have been for slavery?

8 The Great Compromise 3. Tariffs (taxes on imports/exports) divide northerners and southerners

9 The Great Compromise B. The Virginia Plan – new federal constitution that gave sovereignty,or supreme power, to central government 1. Written by James Madison 2. Also known as the large-state plan

10 The Great Compromise 3. Plan divides government into 3 branches: a. legislative – make laws b. executive – enforce laws c. judicial – court systems

11 The Great Compromise

12 4. Representatives chosen on basis of state populations a. Larger states = more reps than smaller states 5. Smaller states do not like Va. Plan

13 The Great Compromise C.The New Jersey Plan – “Congress shall be supreme law of the states” 1. Written by James Patterson 2. Called the small-state plan

14 The Great Compromise 3. All states have an equal number of votes a. Gives smaller states equal voice

15 The Great Compromise 4. Central government can tax citizens in all states 5. Government can regulate commerce (trade)

16 The Great Compromise 6. Larger states do not like NJ Plan They think it gives smaller states too much of an influence

17 D. The delegates are unable to agree The Great Compromise

18 E. The Great Compromise 1. Every state, regardless of size, has an equal vote in the upper house (Senate) a. This satisfies small states

19 The Great Compromise 2. Each state has number of reps based on its population in lower house (House of Representatives) a. This satisfies larger states

20 The Great Compromise 3. Great Compromise passes but still problems to settle

21 The Three-Fifths Compromise A.Regions disagree over slaves 1.South wants slaves to be included in state populations a. Means more representatives

22 The Three-Fifths Compromise 2. North wants slaves to count for taxes but not representation

23 The Three-Fifths Compromise “The admission of slaves into the Representation… comes to this: that that the inhabitant of a state who goes to the coast of Africa and … tears away his fellow creatures from their dearest connections and damns them to the most cruel bondage (slavery), shall have more votes in a Government established for the protection of the rights of mankind.” ~Governor Morris Was Governor Morris for or against slavery?

24 The Three-Fifths Compromise B.Three-Fifths Compromise accepted 1. each slave counts as three-fifths of a person 3/5

25 The Three-Fifths Compromise

26 C.Foreign slave trade is major issue 1. Some want federal government to end slave trade

27 The Three-Fifths Compromise 2. Southern states say they depend on slavery a. Southern states threaten to leave Union if slavery ended “The people of these states will never be such fools as to give up so important an interest.”

28 The Three-Fifths Compromise 3.Another Compromise a. North will wait 20 years before trying to end slave trade b. South will stop insisting laws be passed with 2/3 majority vote

29 The Three-Fifths Compromise “The morality or wisdom of slavery…are considerations belonging to the states themselves.” ~ Oliver Ellsworth

30 Our Living Constitution A.Strong national government wanted 1. popular sovereignty – political authority belongs to the people 2. federalism – sharing of power between a central government and the states that make up a country

31 Our Living Constitution 3. States must obey authority of federal government a. federal govern can use military power to enforce laws

32 Our Living Constitution 4. States have powers over functions not assigned by federal government a. education b. local govern c. welfare of citizens

33 A Delicate Balance A.Federal govern. is made of 3 branches to balance power 1. legislative – proposing/passing laws

34 A Delicate Balance a. Legislative branched divided into 2 houses 1. Senate (upper house) – 2 members/state 2. House of Representatives (the lower house) - number of reps depends on population

35 A Delicate Balance 2. Executive branch – makes sure laws are carried out a. Includes the President

36 A Delicate Balance 3. Judicial branch – interpreting laws, punishing criminals, and settling disputes between states a. Made up of courts

37 A Delicate Balance B.Checks and Balances – system prevents any 1 branch of govern from becoming too powerful

38 A Delicate Balance a.Congress can propose law b.President can reject law c.Congress can override President with 2/3 majority vote d.Judicial branch reviews laws passed by Congress and can declare unconstitutional

39 A Delicate Balance C.Constitution not a perfect document 1. It did create strong govern 2. Protected ideas of republicanism 3. Signed September 1787

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