3 Choosing Phone Net Frequencies Amateurs have a vast amount of radio spectrumMost local and regional emcomm communication takes place on:2 meter or 70 centimeter FM40, 60, or 80 meter SSB/CW
4 Choosing Phone Net Frequencies The choice made is based on the locations to be covered, the availability of repeaters, distance, terrain, and band conditionsVHF and UHF FMPreferred for most local operationsEquipment is commonPortableClear voice qualityCoverage is extended by repeater stationsLarger areas or in areas without repeaters,HF SSB may be needed
5 VHF and UHF RangeTerrainRepeater CoverageAntenna Height
6 HF Most local emcomm operation 40 or 80-meter bands Near Vertical Incidence Skywave (NVIS)Long-haul communication & international15 or 20-meter nets
7 Know Your Resources In Advance Many emcomm groups will have pre-selected a number of frequencies for specific purposesComplete list of these frequencies should be in your jump kitBecome familiar with the coverage and features of repeaters and digital message systems in your areaPre-program your radios with the frequencies, offsets, and CTCSS tones
8 Know Your Resources In Advance Which repeaters are used for emergency communication in your area?Will they be available for exclusive emcomm use, or must they be shared with other users? How does it identify itself?Are there any "dead spots" in critical areas? How much power is required to reach the repeater with a clear, quiet, signal from key locations?Does the repeater have a courtesy tone, and what does it sound like? Do the tones change depending on the repeater's mode?How long is the "time-out timer"?Is it part of a linked system of repeaters? What features does it have, and which touch-tone commands or CTCSS tones activate them?
9 Know Your Resources In Advance Net frequencies that support digital communication systems, such as packet radio bulletin board messaging systems, AMTOR, PSK31 and RTTY:Which software do they use? ARESPACK, Fnpack, FNpsk?Do the digital systems have mailboxes or digipeater functions?Which other nodes can they connect to? Can traffic be passed over an Internet link automatically or manually?How many connections can they support at once?
10 Network Coverage Concerns Emcomm managers rely on simplex operation when planning their VHF or UHF FM netsRepeaters often do not survive disasters or are overwhelmed with the amount of trafficSimplex range is limited byTerrainOutput powerAntenna gainHeightOperation over a wide area can be a challenge
11 Avoid Last Minute Surprises Pre-test all known fixed locations in your area for coverageIf you are serving the Red Cross, test simplex coverage from each official shelter to the Red Cross office and the city's EOC or other key locations, and mobile coverage in the same areas
12 Improving Simplex Range Use an antenna with greater gainMove the antenna away from obstructionsUse a directional antennaIncrease antenna heightIncrease transmitter output power as a last resortIn a fast moving situation with poor simplex coverage and no repeater, it can be helpful to place a mobile station on a hilltop or office building where they can communicate with, and relay for, any station in the net. A mobile relay station can also allow communications to follow a moving event, such a wildfire or flash flood. That station becomes, in effect, a "human repeater". Although an expedient "work-around", this is a slow and cumbersome process that can reduce net efficiency by more than half. A modern aid to this kind of operation is the "simplex repeater". This device automatically records a transmission, and immediately re-transmits it on the same frequency. Remember that FCC rules do not allow unattended operation of simplex repeaters, and that you must manually identify it
13 Portable Duplex Repeater Quickly deployed at a high point in the desired coverage areaJust has to reach and hear the stations in your netBack seat of a car, using a mobile antenna, and parked on a ridge or even the top floor of a parking garagePortable masts and trailer-mounted towers
14 Cross Band Repeat Dual-band radios Mobile can relay your transmission to a repeater for even greater rangeUse low or medium power setting to avoid overheating and damageConsider using a fan to further reduce the likelihood that your radio will be damaged from overheating.
16 Cross Band Repeat – Repeater (1) Receive the repeateroutput directly on your hand-heldand the cross-band unit operatesin simplex mode
17 Cross Band Repeat – Repeater (2) Receive the repeater outputdirectly on your hand-held andthe cross-band unit operates induplex mode. Your cross-bandunit listens away from therepeater input frequency which can,in some cases, reduce interferenceto your unit.
18 Cross Band Repeat – Repeater (3) Receive the repeater backthrough your cross-band system.The downside of this method isthat until the repeater's carrier drops,your cross-band unit will continueto transmit, which does not allowyou to transmit.
19 Frequency and Net Resource Management Actual practice our choices are limited to the available operators and their equipmentNet managers may occasionally need to "shift" resources to meet changing needsEarly stages of an emergency => tactical nets may require more operatorsLater stages => health and welfare traffic might increase
20 Message Relays Third station "relay" the messages Unable to communicatedirectlyMove the stations involved off the main net frequencyto avoid tying up the channel for an extended period
21 Radio Room SecurityAllow only the operators who are on duty to be in the roomProtect your equipmentProtect messages you handlePrevent unnecessary distractionsAvoid leaving the radio room and equipment unattended and accessibleDon’t allow members of the press to be in the room without specific permission from the served agency
22 Record KeepingMost served agencies will expect you to keep records of your operationsOriginal copies of any messages sentStation logsMemosOfficial correspondenceSome may even require you to keep "scratch" notes and informal logsKeep these records in your own possession for a time, or to turn some or all records over to the agency at the end of operationsWhat about records that are on a computer?Know your agency’s policy in advance
23 Record KeepingIn some agencies, your station records are permanent and important legal documents, and must be treated as suchKnow your served agency's policy on record keeping in advance so that you can comply from the very beginning of operations
24 Record Keeping Station operating logs should contain: Your arrival and departure timesTimes you check in and out of specific netsEach message, by number, sender, addressee, and other handling stationsCritical events -- damage, power loss, injuries, earth tremors, other emergenciesStaff changes -- both emcomm and site management, if knownEquipment problems and issues
25 Record KeepingEvery individual message or note should be labeled with a time and dateScratch notesPlace dates and times next to each note on a sheet, so that information can be use later to determine a course of events“Portable office" type file box, expanding file, or any other suitable container can be used to organize and file the messages
26 Dealing With StressMost people are not used to working under extreme stress for long periods, and do not know how to handle itNervous breakdowns are common among those who get overwhelmedHave not learned to manage stress and stress-causing situationsUnable to makegood decisionsDisorientedLose temperBehave in waysyou never wouldany other timeConfusedUnable to makeany decision
27 Dealing With StressTendency is to regard every situation or need as an "emergency," requiring an immediate responseYou might get a barrage of requests for action You might not have the extra seconds it requires to fully consider the options, and to prioritize your actionsThe result is an overload of responsibility, which can lead to unmanageable levels of stress
28 Dealing With Stress You cannot eliminate disaster-related stress You can certainly take steps to reduce or control it
29 Stress ManagementDelegate some of your responsibilities to others. Take on those tasks only you can handle.Prioritize your actions --the most important and time-sensitive ones come first.Do not take comments personally -- mentally translate "personal attacks" into "constructive criticism" and a signal that there may be an important need that is being overlooked.Take a few deep breaths and relax. Do this often, especially if you feel stress increasing. Gather your thoughts, and move on.Watch out for your own needs -- food, rest, water, medical attention.
30 Stress ManagementDo not insist on working more than your assigned shift if others can take overGet rest when you can so that you will be ready to handle your job more effectively later onTake a moment to think before responding to a stress-causing challenge -- if needed, tell them you will be back to them in a few minutesIf you are losing control of a situation, bring someone else in to assist or notify a superiorDo not let a problem get out of hand before asking for helpKeep an eye on other team members, and help them reduce stress when possible
31 Case Example 16-1In a recent activation, an after action report commented on how one Amateur Radio Operator supporting an EOC worked for 36 hours straight. He was praised for his dedication.DiscussionWhat is good about this?What are the problems with this?How would you have handled this situation?If you were this operatorIf you were the EMCOMM manager for this operator
32 Case Example 16-2In a recent exercise debriefing, an Amateur Radio Operator said that in the event of an earthquake if he was assigned second shift at the EOC, he would not stand idle waiting for his shift. He would assist in other ways in the community and then proceed to work his 12 hour EOC shift.DiscussionWhat is good about this?What are the problems with this?How would you do awaiting the start of your EOC shift?
33 Dealing with Big EgosSome within the emergency response community have "big egos“Others with a need to be in full control at all timesTake time now to consider how you will respond to the challenges they present
34 Dealing with Big EgosCome up with a different and more positive response strategy => not angerDepending on the official position of the "problem" person, you might:Do your job as best you can, and deal with it after the emergency is overPolitely decline and state your reasonsRefer the issue to a superiorChoose in advance to volunteer in another capacity and avoid that person altogether
35 Long Term OperationsAdditional operators to allow for regular shift changes, and those who go homeReplacement equipment, as operators leave with their own gear or it failsFood and waterSuitable place to sleep or restGenerator fuelFresh batteriesSanitation facilitiesShelterMessage handling supplies, formsAlternate NCS operators, backupsAdditional net resources to handle message traffic
36 Battery Management You will eventually need to recharge your batteries Some batteries need more time to recharge than othersThis time needs to be taken into account in your planningSlow-charging batteriesMay need to have enough on-hand to last the entire length of the operation
37 Battery ManagementDeep cycle marine batteries can require a full day or longer to fully rechargeSealed lead-acid (SLA) batteries, also known as "gel-cells", require up to 18 hours to recharge depending on the size of the batteryNiCd, LIon, and similar batteries can be recharged quite quicklyRepeated rapid charge cycles can reduce overall battery life
38 Generator and Power Safety Placement of generatorsEngine noiseDifficult for shelter residents and volunteers to get much needed rest, and for anyone trying to do their jobExhaust fumesShould not be allowed to enter the building or nearby tents or vehicles"down-wind" of any occupied location is bestEven when vehicles are not included, internal combustion engines are still the number one cause of carbon monoxide poisoning in the United States. Propane powered engines produce as much or more CO as gasoline or diesel engines.
39 Generator and Power Safety Earth GroundingNot required as long as only plug and cord connected equipment is used, and the generator meets National Electrical Code (NEC) standards listed in Article 250-6Exception is for generators that will be connected, even temporarily, to a building's permanent electrical system.For further details on grounding AC electrical systems, please refer to Article 250 of the NECPrimary hazards to avoid when using a generator are carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning from the toxic engine exhaust, electric shock or electrocution, and fire.Follow the directions supplied with the generator.Every year, people die in incidents related to portable generator use.
40 Generator Safety Policy Generator PlacementGenerators are placed in an area off limits to unauthorized persons and children.Generator is dry and not used in rain or wet conditions. Generator is operating on a dry surface under an open canopy-like structure, such as under a tarp held up on poles.Generator is operating outdoors in a well-ventilated dry area.Generator is operating away from air intakes to any structure.All operators are using dry hands before touching the generator.Generator GroundingGenerator is grounded using a ground rod and large gauge wire (AWG 8 or larger) to bond the generator frame to ground. ORGenerator is properly grounded per the manufacturer’s manual.WiringGenerator is not connected directly to existing wiring (avoid back feeding system).Individual devices are connected directly to the receptacle outlet of the generator or via approved extension cord.
41 Generator Safety Policy Extension Cords areOutdoor ratedOf sufficient gauge and length to handle electrical loads without daisy-chainingFree of cuts or tears and cracked housings.Have three conductors and plugs have all three prongs.Routed to prevent tripping hazard.Generator CapacityLoads are less than the output rating of the generator.Manufacturer’s InstructionsA copy of the generator’s operating manual is available at the generator site.Operation is consistent with all instructions in generator's owner manual.
42 Generator Safety Policy Fuel StorageFuel is stored outdoors.Fuel is stored in properly labeled, non-glass safety containers.Fully charged, approved fire extinguisher is located near the generator.RefuelingGenerator is off and cool before refueling.ShutdownAll equipment is turned off before shutting down generator.Burn HazardExposed mufflers and other hot parts are protected and labeled.
43 Ground Fault Interrupters (GFIs) GFIs detect any difference between the currents flowing on the hot and neutral conductors, and opens the circuitTest any GFI device to be used with or near HF radios to be sure that the GFI will function properly while the radio is transmitting.
44 AC Extension Cords Should be rated for the actual load Consider radios, lights, chargers, and other accessories when calculating the total loadExtension cords are rated only for their actual lengthCannot be strung together to make a longer cord without "de-rating" the cord's capacityA typical 16ga, 50' orange "hardware store" cord is rated for 10 amps. When two are used to run 100', the rating drops to only 7 amps
45 AC Extension CordsChoose a single length of cord rated for the load and the entire distance you must run it.If this is not possible, you can also run two or more parallel cords to the generator in order to reduce the load on any single cord.For more information on portable power cord requirements, consult Article 400 of the NEC.
46 What About Using "Romex ™" "Romex ™" type wire for long extension cordsViolation of the National Electrical CodeDangerous practiceRepeated bending, rolling, and abrasion cause the copper conductors and insulation to break, resulting in a fire and electrocution hazardUse only flexible insulatedextension cords that are UL ratedfor temporary, portable use
47 Electrical Safety Guidelines Electrical codes require three-wire power cords and plugs on many tools and appliances.The “hot” wire is usually black.The “neutral” wire is usually white.The frame/ground wire is usually green or bare wire.Do not install higher current capacity fuses in an existing circuit.
51 The FuseA fuse or circuit breaker should always be added in series with home built equipment that is powered from 110 volt AC lines.In a 12 volt DC system fuses should be located at the voltage source.When a fuse blows an open circuit is created.Never replace a blown fuse with a higher amperage rated fuse.
52 Electrical and RF Safety Fuses and circuit breakersThe purpose of a fuse in an electrical circuit is to interrupt power in case of overload.If you install a 20-ampere fuse in your transceiver in the place of a 5-ampere fuse excessive current could cause a fire. (Note: If it didn’t cause a fire, it still could result in damage to the equipment.)GroundingGround is connected to the green wire in a three-wire electrical plug.
53 Electrical and RF Safety Lightning protectionThe precautions that should be taken when a lightning storm is expected are:Disconnect the antenna cables from your station and move them away from your radio equipmentUnplug all power cords from AC outletsStop using your radio equipment and move to another room until the storm passesAll of these answers are correctFire prevention is the most important reason to have a lightning protection system for your amateur radio station.GET OFF THE AIR DURING SEVERE STORMS!!
55 RF SafetyEnsure that all stations comply with the FCC requirements for maximum permissible exposure to RF radiation.No person should be near any transmitting antenna while it is in use.Make certain that the RF radiation is confined to the antennas' radiating elements.Don't operate high-power amplifiers with the covers removed.With hand-held transceivers, keep the antenna away from your head and use the lowest power possible.Don't work on antennas that have RF power applied.Don't stand or sit close to a power supply when the ac power is on.Never look into a waveguide or directive UHF/SHF antenna when power may be applied.
56 RF SafetyEven though hand-held radios are exempt from RF exposure limits, minimum power should be used with a hand-held to minimize RF exposure to the operator's head (eyes)A mobile transceiver with roof mounted antenna would have better shielding for the vehicle occupants than using a hand-held transceiver in a vehicle
57 Equipment -- Leaving Yours Behind? You are exhausted, and ready to head for home, but the emcomm operation is far from over.You brought along a complete station, and when you leave, the next operator is not nearly as well equipped.Should you leave your equipment behind for the next operator?
58 Equipment -- Leaving Yours Behind? No one can, or should, tell you to leave your equipment behindIf you feel comfortable that someone you know and trust will look after your gear, you may choose to leave some or all of it behindBe sure every piece is marked with at least your name and call signDo not leave behind anything the next operator does not truly needYou still have the ultimate responsibilityfor its operation and safety
59 Equipment -- Leaving Yours Behind? Emergency stations are difficult places to control and monitor.If your equipment is stolen, lost, or damaged, you should not hold anyone responsible but yourself.Conversely, if someone leaves their equipment in your care, treat and protect it better than you would your own, and be sure it is returned safely to its owner.
60 Accepting Specialized Assignments You may be asked to handle other assignments for the served agency that may or may not include communicatingAt one time, most emcomm groups had strict policies against doing other tasksThis is still true of someAt this time, ACS & MST do not have a written policyToday, most emcomm groups will permit their members to be cross-trained for, and perform, a variety of served-agency skills that also include communicatingACS & MST do support this
62 Lesson 16 ActivitiesDevelop a set of "rules" to help a new emcomm group member deal with stress during an emergency.Develop a list of at least five possible served agency jobs that would also require your communication skills.Develop five safety rules pertaining to generators and electrical lines in and near a radio room.
63 Lesson 16 QuestionsWhich of the following will NOT limit VHF simplex range?TerrainOutput PowerAntenna GainDigipeaters
64 Lesson 16 QuestionsWhich of the following actions will NOT improve simplex reception?Increase the antenna height.Switch to a (lower-gain) non-directional antenna.Increase transmitter output power at both stations.Move the antenna away from obstructions.
65 Lesson 16 QuestionsWhich of the following is true about a simplex repeater?The FCC rules do not permit unattended operation of simplex repeaters.They work best in the "cross band repeater" mode.They require the use of two radios.Is the same as a "human repeater."
66 Lesson 16 QuestionsWhich of the following is NOT an appropriate served agency assignment for an emcomm volunteer?Field damage assessment and reporting.Driving a supply delivery vehicle.Typing inventory lists and filing memos.Gathering weather data and reporting conditions.
67 Lesson 16 QuestionsWhich of the following is a good means of dealing with stress during an emcomm event?Take every comment personally.Pay no attention to other team members; let them handle their own problems.To reduce personal stress, insist on working more than your own shift.Prioritize your actions - the most important and time sensitive ones come first.
68 Lesson 16 ReferencesFor information about ARRL Public Service Communications, please see The Public Service Communications Manual:For specific information on ARES, see the ARRL ARES Field Resources Manual (.pdf file)
69 Lesson 17 - Personal Safety, Survival, and Health Considerations
71 Home and Family FirstBefore leaving on an assignment, make all necessary arrangements for the security, safety, and general well being of your home and family.Family members, and perhaps friends or neighbors, should know:Where you are goingWhen you plan to returnHow to get a message to you in an emergency
72 Home and Family FirstIf you live in the disaster area or in the potential path of a stormConsider moving your family to a safe location before beginning your volunteer dutiesTake whatever steps you can to protect your own property from damage or lootingLet a neighbor or even local police know where you are going, when you plan to return, and how to reach you or your family members in an emergency
73 Create Home & Family Checklist HouseBoard up windows if you are in a storm's pathPut lawn furniture and loose objects indoors if high winds are likelyMove valuables to upper levels if flooding is possibleHeating fuel tanks should be filledDrain pipes if below freezing temperatures and power loss are possibleShut off power and gas if practical and if structural damage is possible
74 Create Home & Family Checklist Safe place to stay if needed, preferably with friends or relativesReliable transportation, with fuel tank filledAdequate cash money for regular needs and emergencies (not ATM or credit cards)House, auto, life, and health insurance information to take along if evacuatedAccess to important legal documents such as wills, property deeds, etc.Emergency food and water supply.AM/FM radio and extra batteries
75 Create Home & Family Checklist Flashlight and extra batteries, bulbsGenerator, fuel and safe operating knowledgeAdequate supply of prescription medications on handList of emergency phone numbersPet supplies and arrangements (shelters will not take pets)List of people to call for assistanceMaps and emergency escape routesA way to contact each otherA plan for reuniting later
76 Vehicle & Family Safety Checklist Warm clothes in trunkChains in trunkFull gas tankSand/shovel in trunkWindow ice scraperFlares, flashlight in trunkAntifreezeFamiliarity with school and daycare plansAlternative shelter plansAlternative transportation arrangementsIdentified snow routesBus timetables
77 Should you leave at all?There are times when your family may need you as much or more than your emcomm groupIf there is ever any doubt, your decision must be to stay with your familyYou should discuss, and come to an agreement with your spouse well before any disaster, in order to avoid any last minute problemsAlternatively, have your spouse get an Amateur Radio license and accompany you on your deployment
78 You First -- The Mission Second You will need to continue to take care of yourself.If you become over-tired, ill, or weak, you cannot do your job properly.If you do not take care of personal cleanliness, you could become unpleasant to be around.Whenever possible, each station should have at least two operators on duty so that one can take a break for sleep, food and personal hygiene.If that is not possible, work out a schedule with the emcomm managers or your NCS to take periodic "off-duty" breaks.
79 Safety - Everyone’s Responsibility Personal safetyEveryone is responsible for their own safety. Know your own limitations. Do not undertake any activity for which you feel is unsafe or violates this policyAsk for helpDo not hesitate to ask for help and/or advice from others.Safety briefingsAll personnel are required to attend and contribute to safety briefingsPersonal awarenessEveryone is responsible for reading and understanding this safety policy and carrying out their duties in compliance with the policy guidelinesSafety issuesEveryone is responsible for the safety of the operation.If you see something that violates the provisions of the safety policy, you are obligated to call it to the attention of the Safety Officer or the Incident CommanderIn the event that the IC or the Safety Officer is not available, each individual is authorized to halt operations which violate these guidelines.
80 General Safety Checklist A Safety Officer is assigned to all field operations.A contact list including local fire, police and security is maintained by The Safety Officer.All field operations have a plan.All personnel know their job assignment and understand the plan.Crew is adequate for the job; no less and no more than is necessary.Crew with specific First Aid and CPR training is identified by Safety Officer.
82 Food Most people need at least 2000 calories a day to function well Experienced emcomm managers and served agency personnel will usually be aware of this issue and take steps to see that their volunteer's needs are metHigh calorie and high protein snacks will help keep you goingBut you will also need food that is more substantialBring along some freeze-dried camping food, a small pot, and a camp stove with fuel, or some self-heating military style "Meal, Ready to Eat" (MRE) packages
83 However, they all have limitations you should be aware of… WaterYou will need at least two or three liters of water each day, just for drinking, more for other purposesMost disaster preparedness checklists suggest at least one gallon per person, per dayMany camping supply stores offer a range of water filters and purification tablets that can help make local water supplies saferHowever, they all have limitations you should be aware of…
84 Water FiltersFilters may or may not remove all potentially harmful organisms or discolorationThose with smaller filter pores (.3 microns is a very tight filter) will remove more foreign matter, but will also clog more quicklyIodine-saturated filters will kill or remove most harmful germs and bacteria, but are more expensive and impart a faint taste of iodine to the waterMost filters will remove Giardia cystsAll water filters require care in their use to avoid cross-contamination of purified water with dirty water
86 Water Purification Tablets Purification tablets, such as Halazone, have a limited shelf life that varies with the type, and give the water an unpleasant tasteTablets will do nothing for particulate (dirt) or discoloration in the waterBe sure to read and understand the information that comes with any water purification device or tablet before purchasing or using it
87 Water Purification with Bleach FDA says you can use plain Clorox brand laundry bleach (no perfumes, etc)After filtering out any particulate by pouring it through several layers of densely woven cloth, put sixteen drops of Clorox in a gallon of water, mix well, and allow it to sit for thirty minutesIf it still smells slightly of chlorine, you can use it.If not, stir in sixteen more drops and wait another half hour.If it still does not smell of chlorine, discard the water and find a new supplyIt will not taste great, nor will the chlorine bleach kill cysts like Giardia, but it may be enough
88 Water Purification Last Resort If you have no other means, boiling for at least five minutes will kill any bacteria and other organisms, but will not remove any particulate matter or discolorationBoiling will leave water with a "flat" taste that can be improved by pouring it back and forth between two containers several times to reintroduce some oxygen
90 SleepGet at least six continuous hours of sleep in every twenty-four hour periodOr four continuous hours and several shorter napsSoft foam earplugs and a black eye mask to ensure that light and noise around you are not a problem
91 Personal Hygiene Essentials: Toothpaste and toothbrush Comb Deodorant If possible, bringBar of soap or waterless hand cleanerSmall towel and washclothFew extra shirts
92 Safety in an Unsafe Situation Natural disasters can bringFlying or falling debrisHigh or fast moving waterFireExplosionsBuilding collapsePolluted waterDiseaseToxic chemicalsA variety of other dangersYou should always be aware of your surroundingsand the dangers they hold
93 Clothing Depending on the weather, your gear might include: Hard hat Rain gearWarm non-cotton layersWork glovesWaterproof boots.Always bring several pairs of non-cotton socks and change them often to keep your feet clean and dry.Create seasonal clothing lists suitable for your climate and the types of disasters you might encounter.
94 Personal Safety Checklist Sturdy footwear is worn by all active duty personnel.Safety glasses or goggles are used when cutting wire, soldering or working around machinery.Respirators, dust masks or bandanas are available at fires, floods, earthquakesOSHA approved hard-hats are worn by all ground crew for tower erection operations. NO EXCEPTIONS! Climbing helmets are worn during tower climbing operations.
95 Avoid Dangerous AreasIndustrial buildings or facilities may contain toxic chemicals, which can be released in a disasterHospitalsDams can break,Bridges can wash outBuildings can collapseAreas can become inaccessible due to flooding, landslides, collapsed structures, advancing fires, or storm surgesIf you can avoid being in harm's way,you can also prevent yourself from becomingpart of the problem rather than part of the solution
96 If You Are Trapped or Isolated… Be prepared to help others find or rescue youLet others know where you are going if you must travel anywhere, even within a "safe" buildingTry not to travel alone in dangerous conditions-- bring a "buddy"Carry Signaling Devices
97 Satellite Personal Tracker SPOT sends your exact GPS coordinates and selected messages over commercial satellites to tell others of your location and statusSPOT will acquire its exact coordinates from the GPS network, and send that location along with a distress message to a GEOS International Emergency Response Center every five minutes until cancelledThe Emergency Response Center notifies the appropriate emergency responders based on your location and personal information – which may include local police, highway patrol, the Coast Guard, our country’s embassy or consulate, or other emergency response or search and rescue teams – as well as notifying your emergency contact person(s) about the receipt of a distress signalSend and save your location and allow contacts to track your progress using Google Maps™.
98 Google Latitude With Google Latitude: See where your friends are and what they are up toQuickly contact them with SMS, IM, or a phone callControl what your location is and who gets to see itFrom a mobile phone
99 ShelterIn most cases, you will not need your own shelter for operating or sleepingYou may be able to stay or work in the emergency operations center, evacuation shelter, or even your own vehicleIn some cases a tent, camp trailer, motor home, or other suitable shelter may be necessary
100 TentsPick a tent equipped to withstand the harshest conditions you might encounterRated for high windsWaterproofFull-coverage rain flyWaterproof bottomUse a tarp, ground cloth or footprint to extend the life of a tent's floorResources:Tents should be rated for high winds, and should be designed to be waterproof in heavy weather. Most inexpensive family camping tents will not survive difficult conditions. Dome tents will shed wind well, but look for published "wind survival" ratings since not all dome designs are equal. Your tent should have a full-coverage rain fly rather than a single waterproof fabric. The tent's bottom should be waterproof, extending up the sidewalls at least six inches in a "bath-tub" design, but bring an extra sheet of plastic to line the inside just in case. (Placing a plastic ground cloth under a tent will allow rain to quickly run under and through a leaky tent floor.) Bring extra nylon cord and long ground stakes to help secure the tent in windy conditions. If you are not an experienced foul weather camper, consider consulting a reputable local outfitter or camping club for advice on selecting and using a tent.
101 Medical Considerations Discuss any medical conditions with your physician ahead of timePotentially interfere with your ability to do your jobDiabeticYou will need to avoid going for long periods without proper food or medication, and stress may affect your blood sugar levelHeartMay need to avoid stressful situations
102 Medical Considerations Have an adequate supply of appropriate medications on handHave a copy of any prescriptionsLet your emcomm manager and any work partners know of your condition so that they can take appropriate actions if something goes wrong
103 Medical Considerations Keep a copy of any special medical information and emergency phone numbers in your wallet at all timesWear any medical ID jewelry you have
104 Protect Your Eyes and Sight If you wear eyeglasses or contact lenses, bring at least one spare pairContact lensesBring more than enough changes to avoid running outMay want to switch to glasses to avoid having to deal with lens removal and cleaning under field conditionsIf you have any doubts, consult your eye doctor ahead of timeBringing a copy of your lens prescription along may also be a good ideaEspecially if you are likely to be some distance from home for a while
105 Protect Your Eyes and Sight SunglassesFatiguePossibly eye damageGood quality UV blocking sunglasses“Snow blindness"Prolonged periods of exposure where there is snow/sand can cause the retina to be burnedSunglasses that offer the following are frequently recommended:99-100% UV absorptionPolycarbonate or CR-39 lens (lighter, more comfortable than glass)5-10% visible light transmittanceLarge lenses that fit close to the faceWraparound or side-shielded to prevent incidental light exposureThe symptoms of snow blindness are a sensation of grit in the eyes, pain in and over the eyes that increases with eyeball movement, red and teary eyes, and a headache that intensifies with continued exposure to light. Prolonged exposure to these rays can result in permanent eye damage. To treat snow blindness, bandage your eyes until the symptoms disappear
106 Sample Personal Survival & Comfort Needs Checklist Suitable size backpack or duffel bag for clothing and personal gearPlastic storage tub for food, cooking gearToilet kit -- soap, comb, deodorant, shampoo, toothbrush, toothpasteToilet paper in zipper-lock freezer bagSmall towel and washclothLip balmFacial tissuesSunscreenInsect repellentPrescription medications (1 week supply)Copies of medication and eyeglass/contact lens prescriptionsSpare eyeglasses or contact lenses and suppliesHand lotion for dry skinSmall first aid kitNon-prescription medications, including painkiller, antacids, anti-diarrheal, etc.
107 Sample Personal Survival & Comfort Needs Checklist Extra basic clothing -- shirts, socks, underwearGloves, for protection or warmthPocket flashlightFolding pocket knifeSleeping bag, closed-cell foam pad or air mattress, pillowEar plugs (soft foam type in sealed package)Black eye maskOuter clothing for season and conditions (rain gear, parka, hat, face mask, etc)Hard hatReflective vest, hatTravel alarm clockChemical light sticksPolice or signal whistleDust masksPhone/ /address list for family, friends, neighbors, physician, pharmacyEmergency contact/medical information card in your walletSpare car and house keysHigh energy or high protein snacksFood -- Freeze-dried or MREs
108 Sample Personal Survival & Comfort Needs Checklist Coffee, tea, drink mixesPlate or bowl, knife, fork and spoon, insulated mugCamp stove, small pot, fuel and matchesBattery or other lanternWater, in heavy plastic jugsWater purification filter or tabletsMagnetic compass, mapsDuct tape, parachute cordConsider packing individual itemsor kits in zipper-lock freezer bagsto keep the contents dry, clean,and neat
110 Possible Psychological Symptoms Irritability, angerSelf-blame, blaming othersIsolation, withdrawalFear of recurrenceFeeling stunned, numb, or overwhelmedFeeling helplessMood swingsSadness, depression, griefDenialConcentration, memory problemsRelationship conflicts/marital discord
111 Possible Physiological Symptoms Loss of appetiteHeadaches, chest painDiarrhea, stomach pain, nauseaHyperactivityIncrease in alcohol or drug consumptionNightmaresInability to sleepFatigue, low energy
112 Reducing Stress Get enough sleep. Exercise. Eat a balanced diet. Balance work, play, and rest.Allow yourself to receive as well as give. Remember that your identity is broader than that of a helper.Connect with others.Use spiritual resources.
113 Community Emergency Response Team Helps train people to be better prepared to respond to emergency situations in their communitiesCERT members can give critical support to first responders, provide immediate assistance to victims, and organize spontaneous volunteers at a disaster siteCERT members can also help with non-emergency projects that help improve the safety of the community
114 Citizen CorpsCitizen Corps asks you to embrace the personal responsibility to be prepared; to get training in first aid and emergency skills; and to volunteer to support local emergency responders, disaster relief, and community safety
115 National Voluntary Organizations Active in Disaster (NVOAD) Coalition of 49 major national nonprofit and faith-based organizations with committed missions to domestic disaster-related servicesMission is to foster more effective service to people affected by disastersFormed after Hurricane CamilleIn the aftermath of this disaster, the voluntary organizations who wanted to help victims realized they didn't know very much about each other, and certainly weren't very well coordinated
116 C.E.R.T. Unit 1: Disaster Preparedness Unit 2: Fire Safety Unit 3: Disaster Medical Operations—Part 1Unit 4: Disaster Medical Operations—Part 2Unit 5: Light Search and Rescue OperationsUnit 6: CERT OrganizationUnit 7: Disaster PsychologyUnit 8: Terrorism and CERTUnit 9: Course Review and Disaster Simulation
118 C.E.R.T. in Western Washington Seattle does not teach CERTSeattle program is SNAP (Seattle Neighborhoods Actively Prepare)Some other Western Washington communities have active CERT programs. For example:RedmondSammamishFederal WayVashon IslandWoodinvilleIssaquahCarnation / DuvallSnohomish CountyUniversity of Washington
120 C.E.R.T. Communications Example FRS1 Neighborhood Watch to RespondersFRS2 CERT Team Leaders to Command PostFRS3 CERT Planning SectionFRS4 CERT Logistics SectionFRS5 CERT Admin SectionFRS6 CERT Team Leader to Public Safety RespondersFRS7 Safety Officer – Rapid Intervention TeamFRS8 CERT Ops Inter-Team Primary Working ChannelFRS CERT Intra-team working channels 500mw Max.Use of the “Interstitial Simplex” Channels 1 through 7 with transmitter output greater than 500mw requires GMRS license and Part 95 Type Accepted radio such as the ICOM F21GM.
121 C.E.R.T. & Amateur RadioDuring a response, CERTs will have a variety of communications requirementsSome of the communications required of all CERTs during emergencies include:Intra-team communications, especially during search and rescue operationsInter-team communications required to communicate logistics, request assistance, and provide statusGroup Leaders to CERT Team LeaderCERT Team Leader to first responders (at the Incident Command Post)CERTs should consider two-way radios for:Intra-squad and inter-squad communicationsEach team should be assigned a different channel or frequencySection chiefs (Operations, Logistics, Planning, and Administration) should be assigned a separate channel or frequency to communicate with each other and with the Team LeaderCommunications with first respondersA separate frequency should be assigned to these communications.RACES or ARES organizations may wish to incorporate a radio operator to communicate between the CERT Team Leader (Command Post) and the Incident Command or Emergency Operations Center (EOC)
124 Lesson 17 ActivitiesPrepare a disaster preparedness checklist specifically for your home and family.Prepare a personal-needs checklist for yourself.What are two major disaster threats in your area? For each threat, list five actions you would take as a precaution to protect your home and family.
125 Lesson 17 QuestionsWhich of the following statements concerning water purification is FALSE?Boiling water for a full 5 minutes will kill most harmful bacteria.Boiling water to purify it can leave it with a flat taste.Filters may or may not remove harmful bacteria.Purification tablets will remove bacteria and particulate matter (dirt).
126 Lesson 17 QuestionsWhich of the following is true about using chlorine to purify water?It is best to use four to six drops of chlorine per gallon of water.Adding the proper amount of chlorine to water will improve the taste.Adding the proper amount of chlorine to water will kill cysts like Giardia.It is best to use 16 drops of plain chlorine per gallon of water.Note: Answer D in the book has an incorrect answer of “two to four drops” instead of “16 drops”. If this question is on the test, it might have the same typo.
127 Lesson 17 QuestionsWhich of the following is true about the personal gear you bring to a long-term incident?Include several pairs of warm cotton socks.Lightweight summer clothing is all you will ever need.Keep spare eyeglasses or safety glasses/ goggles in a hard-shell, felt-lined storage case.As a volunteer communicator, you will need to bring specialized protective clothing.
128 Lesson 17 QuestionsMany disaster assignments are in unsafe places. Which of the following is true about such locations?Always plan an escape route from buildings and hazardous areas.Always plan more than one escape route from buildings and hazardous area.The only dangers that you need be concerned with in any location are fire, flood, and falling debris.Dams, bridges and buildings can generally be thought of as "safe zones."
129 Lesson 17 QuestionsWhich of the following statements about safety and survival is true?The mission takes priority over everything else.A person requires at least four gallons of water per day just for drinking.If caffeine keeps you awake, stop drinking caffeinated beverages at least ten minutes before going to bed.Your personal safety and well-being are a higher priority than the mission.Note: The book indicates that Answer B is the correct answer. However, we believe that Answer D is the more appropriate response.
130 Lesson 17 QuestionsWhich of the following best defines an MRE package?Mainly Radio Equipment.Mostly Random Equipment.Meals, Ready to Eat.Meals, Rarely Eaten.
131 Lesson 17 ReferencesFEMA Disaster Safety Information:FEMA Disaster Preparedness for kids:American Red Cross -- Disaster Safety:Food:Water:North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service – food safety & disaster recovery:Institute for Home and Business Safety:Univ. of Florida -- Disaster safety tips:Virginia Tech -- Farm preparedness:
133 Alternate Communications Amateur radio may not always be the only or best radio service for the jobThere are dire situations in which individuals are forced to summon help by any means availableOccasionally, we find that the tasks within a disaster exceed the limits of the manpower provided by the amateur communitySometimes it is better to hand an official a radio he can use to stay in contact with the ARES team on site, and not saddle him or her with a ham radio “shadow.”Particularly true for officials who must regularly deal with sensitive issuesOther voluntary agencies may use these radio services in their own operationsLegal Considerations…
134 Licenses Some radio services require licenses, and others do not In a true emergency as defined by the FCC, this may not be a problemFCC rules give everyone special permission to use "any means necessary" to communicate in order to protect life and propertyBut only when no other normal means of communication is possible
135 LicensesIf your group is planning to use licensed radios, obtain your license well before any emergency and keep it currentIf you own a radio, but no license, a judge could claim pre-meditation if you use it and disturb licensed users
136 Can I Modify My Radio?NO -- you cannot modify your radio and call for help on the local police frequency the next time you see a car crash on the highwayLaw enforcement agencies are not bound by the FCC’s rules.Hams who have called for "help" on police frequencies have been convicted of "interfering with a police agency" under state and local laws, even though the FCC had taken no enforcement action.In one case, the judge ruled that by modifying his radio in advance, the Amateur had committed "pre-meditated" interference, a serious charge. If you are in a position to save someone's life or property, be sure you are ready to defend your actions -- and possibly lose -- before pressing the mic button.
137 Modified Amateur Radios Easy to modify many VHF and UHF Amateur radios for operation in nearby public service and business bandsNot legal to do so for regular "emergency" useRadios must be "Type Accepted" by the FCCAmateur radios are notIf you plan to use other radio frequencies discussed in this unit, it is better to purchase the proper radio. However, if the need arises and your ham radio is all you have, the FCC will probably not prosecute you for using it - if the use falls within their strict rules for emergencies
138 Citizens' Band (CB) Radio No licensing is required, and tactical or self-assigned identifiers are acceptableA recommended method promoted by the FCC is the letter "K,” followed by the user's first and last initials, followed by your zip code“KBD98112”If you had a valid Class D License before the mid 1980s, you may continue to use your old CB call signDO NOT USE YOUR AMATEUR CALL SIGN
139 CB Technical Information 11-meter band40 designated channels from to MHzMaximum output power of four wattsAmplitude modulation (AM)Single side band (SSB)FCC rules permit communication to a maximum of 250 km (155.3 miles)Effective range averages between two and eight miles (mobile-mobile)Depending on antennas, terrain and propagation up to 25 miles (base-mobile)SSB can significantly increase rangeChannel 9 is reserved for emergency and motorist assistance traffic onlyIn many remote areas with little or no telephone service, families rely on CB radios for basic day-to-day communications. Many rural police and sheriff's organizations still monitor CB traffic. In a number of states, highway patrol officers install CB units in their patrol cars with the blessing of their agencies. However, may departments that used to monitor channel 9 have given up the practice. REACT groups in the area may still be monitoring.
140 Multi-Use Radio Service (MURS) Personal and business operationPrimarily intended for portable operationMaximum power of two wattsMURS frequencies:Bandwidth on the first three frequencies is limited to kHz, and 20 kHz for the last twoFrequency stability must be at least 5 ppmAntenna height is limited to 60 feet above groundNo licenses are issued for this service
141 Family Radio Service (FRS) Designed for short-range personal communicationsGood newsAlmost everyone owns one or more of these handy radiosBad newsChannels in some areas are crowded and undisciplined, making them less useful for emergency communications
142 FRS Technical Information 14 available UHF channels8 different CTCSS codes to limit background chatter and noiseOutput power is from 100 to 500 mwREACT recommends the use of FRS channel 1 ( MHz) with no CTCSS tone as an emergency calling channelFirst 7 FRS channels are shared with the General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS)Chances of distress call being heard on either service is greatly increased on these seven common channelsMany FRS radio are offered as combination FRS/GMRS radios with up to two watts output on the GMRS channelsLicense requiredUnfortunately, the general public has not paid much attention to this "standard" and channel 1 is just as full of chatter as the others.It is important to note that the channel numbers on each radio are not always interchangeable between older radios with fewer than 14 channels. The chart below shows the frequency relationships for many 2 and 14 channel radios. Single channel radios are usually on channel 1, which corresponds to channel 1 in the 14-channel units.
143 General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) 15 UHF frequencies between and MHzEight are paired with matching repeater inputs five MHz higher7 “interstitial” channels are shared with FRSPower is limited to 50 wattsExcept on “interstitial” channels, 5 wattsThere is no frequency coordinationUsers must cooperate locally to effectively use channelsCTCSS codes are the same as for FRSFM voice operation is permittedDigital modes and phone patches are notMHz is recognized for emergency and travel information useMonitored by many REACT teams nationwide
144 GMRS GMRS requires a license Many “FRS” radios include “GMRS” You should have a license for these radios!If you operate a radio under the rules that apply to GMRS, you must have a GMRS license.GMRS radios generally transmit at higher power levels (1 to 5 watts is typical) and may have detachable antennas.The current fee for a new GMRS license is $80.The manual that comeswith the radio, or the label placedon it by the manufacturer,should indicate the service theunit is certified for.Operating a GMRS station will require a low-cost system license from the FCC. You can apply using FCC Form 574, or apply online. FCC online licensing information can be obtained at System licenses are currently granted only to individuals. A system includes any and all radios operated by family members, and may include fixed, mobile, and repeater equipment. Use under the license is restricted to members of the licensee’s immediate family. Licenses to entities other than individuals are no longer issued, but non-individual entities licensed before July 31st, 1987 may continue to renew their licenses, and may not increase or modify their use.
145 Public Safety RadioThere are instances where the use of police and fire radio frequencies is possibleAgency itself might allow and train you for such useIndividual officer may ask you to use his radio to call for help when he cannotKeep your transmissions short and to the pointDo not tie up the channel with long explanations, and cease transmitting if they tell you to
146 Cellular and PCS Phones In a widespread disaster situation, these phone systems can quickly become overloadedA message is too sensitive to send via any two-way radio, try your cell phoneCellular and PCS phone transmissions, especially digital, are considerably more secureIn addition, it is possible to send low-speed data or fax transmissions over the cellular network
147 Marine RadioFM marine radios operate on internationally allocated channels in the 160 MHz bandHF SSB radios operate on a variety of ITU channels between 2 and 30 MHzFM stations for vessels in US waters do not require a licenseOperation on the HF channels does require a licenseChannel 16 – Distress ChannelIf you hear a vessel in distress whose calls are going unanswered by the Coast Guard, you may legally answer them from an unlicensed land-based station under the FCC’s “emergency communications” rules
149 Aviation Radio AM radios operating in the 108-136 MHz band FCC licenses are required for all aircraft stations operating internationally, but not within the USEmergency locator transmitters (ELTs)Automatic devices that transmit a distress signal on (civilian distress channel) and MHz (military counterpart)Also used for marine Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRB) and the new land-based Personal Radio Beacons (PRB)
150 Aviation Radio The United States airspace is divided into 21 centers Each center is divided into sectorsAlso within each center are portions of airspace, about 50 miles (80.5 km) in diameter, called TRACON (Terminal Radar Approach CONtrol) airspacesWithin each TRACON airspace are a number of airports, each of which has its own airspace with a 5-mile (8-km) radius
151 Aviation Radio http://www.airnav.com/airport/KSEA SEATTLE GROUND: WEST EASTSEATTLE TOWER: 119.9 EAST WESTSEATTLE APPROACH: 119.2( RY 16)119.2( )120.1( )120.4( RY 34)125.6 ARRIVAL WEST125.9( RWY 34)125.9( RWY 16)126.5( )SEATTLE DEPARTURE:
153 EPIRBs and PRBs "406" EPIRBs operate on the 406 MHz frequency This is the EPIRB which takes the “search” out of search and rescueGPIRBs (Global Position Indicating Radio Beacon) combine the latest in GPS and 406MHz EPIRB (Electronic Position Indicating Radio Beacon) technologyBuilt in GPS determines and broadcasts its own locationBy international agreement, the original MHz (civil) and 243 MHz (military) beacons are no longer be sensed by satellites starting in 2009
154 LandlinesIf they are still functioning, use the telephone and fax whenever the message might be too sensitive for radioFax is also useful for sending long lists, and where accuracy is criticalDo not tie up a radio frequency sending a long list of supplies if a working fax or phone is available
155 Couriers Sensitive or very lengthy message Fax and phone lines are out of serviceHand delivery might be the best choice if travel is possibleActing as a courier does noteliminate the use of radio,since couriers need to bedispatched from place to place
158 Scenario 18-1You are driving on an Interstate highway in a rural area and you come upon an accident with a severely injured driver. You have a cell phone and a modified Amateur Radio which covers the local Fire Department frequencies.QuestionWhen is it legal to summon for help on the Fire Department frequency?
159 Scenario 18-2You are the on duty NCS Operator and you have been given an ICS-213 form with a page long handwritten message that needs to be sent to a local shelter. Operational in the EOC are Amateur Radio equipment, landline phones, facsimile machines, and PCs with connectivity.What do you do?
160 Scenario 18-3You are the Amateur Radio Operator on duty at the Hospital. An EMT in the field needs additional instructions from a physician at the hospital. The physician does not have an Amateur Radio license.What do you do?
161 Lesson 18 ActivityDevelop a list of at least three potential uses for non-ham radios in public service or emergency communication efforts in your area. You may base this on past or potential events. Specify which alternate radio system(s) best meets the need of each situation on your list and explain why.
162 Lesson 18 QuestionsWhich can you NOT use to identify your transmissions on Citizens' Band radio?Your Amateur call, if you were licensed when 11-meters was an Amateur allocation.With your old Class D call sign, if you had one.A self-assigned identifier.A tactical call sign.
163 Lesson 18 QuestionsWhich is the best course of action for summoning help via CB?Use channel 1, since the lowest frequency has the longest ground-wave signal.Call at regular intervals on Channels 9 and 19 for a response.Call only on channel 9, since it is designated for assistance and emergencies.Say "Break-Break" or "MAYDAY" on any channel.
164 Lesson 18 QuestionsWhich is NOT an advantage of using Family Radio Service (FRS) systems?They are readily available at low cost.Operation of FRS radios is simple and requires little training.There is no requirement for licensing to use FRS.Low transmitter power
165 Lesson 18 QuestionsWho may currently license a GMRS system with the FCC?A privately owned business, for routine communications.An individual, for family and personal use.A charitable institution, for benevolent purposes.A local repeater club.
166 Lesson 18 Questions Which is NOT true of the MURS? A station license is not required.Power output is limited to 2 wattsRadios operate in the VHF bandData emissions are permitted
167 Lesson 18 ReferencesMultiple Use Radio Service (MURS) rulesFamily Radio Service rulesGeneral Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) rulesCitizen's Band (CB) rulesFor a detailed discussion of the FCC Rules on Amateur Radio emergency communication, please see the ARRL FCC Rule Book, Chapter 5.
169 Lesson 19 - What to Expect in Large-Scale Disasters
170 Onset: Critical Communication Requirements in a Disaster Huge increase in the volume of traffic on public-safety radio channels, accompanied by prolonged waiting periods to gain accessEquipment outages occur at key locationsMessages are not handled in order of priorityUrgent messages are often lostNeed arises for agencies to communicate with one anotherIncompatible radio systemsUnfamiliar or unattainable frequencies, names, terms, and procedures
171 Onset: Critical Communication Requirements in a Disaster Large-scale situationContact locations at distances beyond the range of a given radio or system (50 to 350 miles or more)Message reply delays are experiencedDeferred decisions on crucial mattersMessage duplicationConfusionMessages with widely differing priorities
172 Different modes of communication Different modes of communication are required in addition to voiceVolume data in printed form data modes, high-speed packet, and facsimileMorse code or PSK31 under difficult reception conditionsEncoded data for extreme privacyTelevision--mobile, portable, aeronautical, and marineTelephone interconnections from/to radio systems
173 Operational Problems Arise High-volume traffic circuits with no supply of message formsUsing the only printed forms available that were designed for a different, unrelated agency or functionAttempting to decipher scribbling from untrained message writers; using scribes who cannot understand radio parlance or read through QRMBecoming inundated with traffic volume so heavy it results in confusion over which messages are to be sent, which were sent, which have been received for delivery, and which have been received to be filed for ready reference.
174 What Happens in the First 72 Hours? Takes time to overcome the obstacles to placing fully activated mutual aid resources into operationGreatest concentration of relief effortGenerally found in the incorporated cities served by agencies with paid professionalsAssuming their equipment, facilities and personnel remain operableSuburbs and isolated areas of a countySuffer from remoteness from fire departments, public works, law enforcement and the services of all other agencies
175 What Happens in the First 72 Hours? The public is often isolated, unable to call for help or determine the nature and extent of the disasterShould they make plans to:"Wait it out."Prepare to evacuate.Actually evacuate with some possessions to a safe placeObtain physical aid for an impending catastropheOffer aid to a relative, friend or neighborLack of information results in further attempted use of the telephone when the system is already saturatedCalls can often be received from out-of-town but not made across town.
176 What Happens in the First 72 Hours? The opportunity to call for help is often unavailable to most citizens during the first 72 hours
177 What Happens in the First 72 Hours? Distorted public perceptions develop through misinformationBroadcast stations (those still on the air) initially disseminate rumors in the absence of factual informationPeople walk aimlessly seeking a route to family and friendsMany, fearful of looting, remain in hazardous buildings, or return, as do shopkeepers, to salvage valuablesAs darkness falls, rumors of looting are generated some true
178 What Happens in the First 72 Hours? Word circulates about shelter locationsSome displaced persons stay at homes of friends, relatives or strangersOthers are housed at public shelters into the fourth day, still searching for family members elsewhere, and without communicationOpportunity to notify concerned distant relatives is not afforded except via Amateur Radio and the American Red Cross
179 What Happens in the First 72 Hours? Later, often too late, information trickles in about problem areas or cases that have been overlooked due to the lack of communicationSome potential evacuees are overlookedSurvival instincts prevailInter-agency communication is poor to non-existentAt the end of 72 hours, the disaster area remains in virtual isolation except for helicopter service for known critical cases and official use
180 What Happens in the First 72 Hours? Amateur Radio operators from neighboring counties and states offer to help but are often unable to cross the roadblocks established to limit access by sightseers and potential lootersDisorganized local volunteers often lack essential skills and orientationCostly mistakes are made and systems bog down
181 What Happens in the First 72 Hours? The dead pose a serious health problem.Stress rises among the citizenry.Little overall assessment emerges in the first 72 hours about available emergency resources and relief supplies.Shortages are apparent and growingTravel continues to be difficult and slowRelief supplies trickle in to uncertain storage locations
182 What Happens in the First 72 Hours? Food and water shortages have become criticalNormal water sources may have been cut off or contaminatedRelief efforts are mounted when someone takes charge, makes a decision, and directs the efforts of others.The command and control process of directing requires communication - the ingredient in short supply in all disasters
183 What Happens in the First 72 Hours? At critiques following a disaster, as always, the cry is heard: "Next time we must be better prepared!"By the way, this lesson was written prior to Katrina…What did we learn from the past???
185 Critical Incident Stress Debriefing CISS is the adverse psychological and/or physiological reaction to a stressful incidentSearch and Rescue personnel are particularly susceptible to this due to the very nature of their jobSix phases:Introduction and a descriptionReview of the factual materialSharing of initial thoughts/feelingsSharing of emotional reactions to the incidentInstruction about normal stress reactionsReview of the symptomsClosing and further needs assessment
186 Traumatic Crisis An event in which people experience or witness: Actual or potential death or injury to self or others.Serious injury.Destruction of homes, neighborhood, or valued possessions.Loss of contact with family/close relationships.
188 Mediating Factors Prior experience with a similar event The intensity of the disruption in the survivors’ livesIndividual feelings that there is no escape, which sets the stage for panicThe emotional strength of the individualThe length of time that has elapsed between the event occurrence and the present
189 Stabilizing Individual Assess the survivors for injury and shock.Get uninjured people involved in helping.Provide support by:Listening.Empathizing.Help survivors connect with natural support systems.
190 Avoid Saying . . . “I understand.” “Don’t feel bad.” “You’re strong/You’ll get through this.”“Don’t cry.”“It’s God’s will.”“It could be worse” or “At least you still have . . .”
191 Lesson 19 ActivityMake a list of the natural disasters most likely to occur in your home area, and order them from most to least likely. For the most likely disaster on your list, discuss the preparations made by local emergency communication groups to deal with a related communication emergency.
192 Lesson 19 QuestionsWhat is the first thing that happens after a disaster has occurred?The Federal Emergency Management Agency arrives on the scene.The Red Cross and Salvation Army arrive with food and bedding for victims.Massive increase in the volume of traffic on public-safety radio channels.The press provides up to date and accurate information to the public.
193 Lesson 19 QuestionsWhich of the following statements is NOT true of interagency communication?Many agencies use incompatible radio systems.Many agencies are reluctant to use each other's radio system.Agencies all use the same radio systems and frequencies.Amateur Radio can be used to link agencies.
194 Lesson 19 QuestionsIn the first 72 hours of a disaster situation, where is the greatest concentration of relief effort to be found?Urban areas.Suburban areas.Rural areas.Outside the affected area.
195 Lesson 19 QuestionsWhich organization handles health and welfare messages on behalf of the victims?ARES.RACES.National Weather Service.American Red Cross.
196 Lesson 19 QuestionsWhat is the usual situation in a disaster during the initial 72 hours?The disaster area remains in virtual isolation.The disaster is over and everybody can go home.A few victims still need assistance.Communication systems are back to normal.
197 Lesson 19 ReferencesARRL Public Service Communications ManualFor more information on the FCC Rules, please see The ARRL's FCC Rule Book, chapter 5 on providing emergency communications.For additional general information, please see The ARRL Operating Manual, chapter on emergency communications. See also the ARRL ARES Field Resources Manual.For local information, or to learn more about ARES and NTS net operation in your area, contact your Section Manager (SM) ( your Section Emergency Coordinator (SEC) or District Emergency Coordinator (DEC). See also The ARRL Net Directory for a list of ARES and NTS nets operating in your area.
199 Hazardous Materials HazMat Any substances or materials, which if released in an uncontrolled manner (e.g., spilled), can be harmful to people, animals, crops, water systems, or other elements of the environmentAmateur radio operators may encounter HazMat incidents, or to assist with emergency communications in such incidents
200 Hazardous Materials . . . Corrode other materials Explode or are easily ignitedReact strongly with waterAre unstable when exposed to heat or shockAre toxic to humans, animals, or the environment
201 HazMat Explosives Gases Flammable and combustible liquids Flammable solids or substancesPoisonous and infectious substancesRadioactive materialsCorrosives
202 Sources of Hazardous Materials Chemical plantsService stationsHospitalsHazardous materials waste sitesTransport vehicles
203 Hazardous Materials Incident Preparedness Find out what could happen.Address the hazards in your emergency plan.Practice and maintain your plan.Learn the warning and information system for your community.
204 During a Hazardous Materials Incident Call for help immediately and let the experts handle the situation.Stay away from the incident site.If outside, stay upstream, uphill, and upwind.Do NOT be tempted to get just a little closer so that you can read placards or other itemsIf in a motor vehicle, stop and find shelter.If asked to evacuate, do so immediately.If requested, stay indoors—shelter in place.
205 During a Hazardous Materials Incident If you are able to see from a safe position, look for:The four-digit number on a placard or orange panelThe four-digit number preceded by the initials UN/NA on a shipping paper, package or drumThe name of the material on the shipping papers, placard, or package
206 Identifying Hazardous Materials in Transit NameChemical ClassSymbolSymbolChemicalNumberChemical ClassYou may recognize some of the more common ones, such as 1993, which covers a multitude of chemicals including road tar, cosmetics, diesel fuel, and home heating oil. You may have also seen placards with the number 1203 (gasoline) on tankers filling the underground tanks at the local gas station.
207 Identifying Hazardous Materials in Transit OrangeRedWhiteRed &BlueYellowYellow &Black &
208 Identifying Stored Hazardous Materials The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has devised a marking system to alert firefighters to the characteristics of hazardous materials stored in stationary tanks and facilities. This system, known as NFPA 704M, can also assist citizens visiting a site in identifying the hazard presented by the stored substance. Use of the system is voluntary, unless specified by local codes.OXY means this material is an oxidizer. It can easily release oxygen to create or worsen a fire or explosion hazard.The symbol W indicates a material that reacts with water to release a gas that is either flammable or hazardous to health.If the material is radioactive, the usual tri-blade propeller symbol for radioactivity will appear.
209 Reporting a HazMat Incident When reporting a HazMat incident, include the following information:Identify yourself.Give your current location and the location of the incident, i.e. street address or cross streets, road and mile marker, distance from nearest town, etc.Briefly describe what you see (from a distance), i.e. liquid spill, gaseous cloud, etc, and any placard numbers or other information you can safely see.If a gaseous cloud or liquid spill exists, give the direction the contaminant is flowing or moving. Give any pertinent weather or other information you can observe from a safe distance that might help the experts in responding to the incident. Be concise.
211 Lesson 20 ActivitiesDescribe how you would handle the following situation:You are traveling through a rural area right behind a tornado, reporting damage and casualties to the local fire and police agencies as you go. Cresting a hill, you see a tank trailer overturned on the road ahead. No one else is around. A variable wind is blowing the leaking fumes in several directions unpredictably. You cannot see the placards on the truck from where you are.
212 Lesson 20 QuestionsWhich of the following BEST describes where you should be located when in the vicinity of a HazMat incident?Far away enough to ensure your safety.Downhill and downwind.Close enough to read the numbers on any placards with your naked eyes.Alongside emergency responders wearing exposure suits.
213 Lesson 20 QuestionsWhich federal agency is responsible for warning the public about hazardous materials containers and shippers?Federal Emergency Management Agency.Federal Response Plan.National Communications System.Department of Transportation.
214 Lesson 20 QuestionsBefore transmitting in the area of a HazMat incident what should you always do?First identify the agents by reading the placard or container labels.Be far enough away so that no vapors or fumes are present.Wait to report the incident until police or fire officials have arrived.Take action to stop or contain any agents that might be leaking.
215 Lesson 20 QuestionsOn the sides of transporting vehicles how are different classes of hazardous materials identified?Placards.Four-digit numbers.Warning labels and/or icons.All of the answers are correct.
216 Lesson 20 QuestionsWhich information will give responding authorities the most useful information?Placard colorIcon typesWarning labelsFour-digit numbersNOTE: This is the old Question #4 from the previous version of the Level 1 book. This question might still be on some of the tests.
217 Lesson 20 QuestionsGasoline tankers filling the neighborhood gas station's underground tanks are identified with a placard bearing which of the following?1203199320032706
218 Lesson 20 ReferencesDetails of the placards and emergency response procedures can be found in the comprehensive DOT Emergency Response Guidebook, copies of which may be available for your review at your local Emergency Management, police, sheriff or fire department. A copy is also available online at:You may also consult your Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC) or State Emergency Response Commission (SERC) concerning what role Amateur Radio might have in your local plan. For more information about hazardous materials in general, contact FEMA, Technological Hazards Division, Federal Center Plaza, 500 C St., SW, Washington, DC, (202)Additional related links:
220 DefinitionsVessel: A general term for all craft capable of floating on water and larger than a rowboat.Ship: A general term for larger seagoing vessels of every kind.Boat: A term applied to smaller craft propelled by oars, sails or engines.Marine: An adjective meaning related to or connected with the sea.
221 Type of Marine Radio VHF-FM, (156 to 162 MHz) Effective range from ship to ship of 10 to 15 miles, and ship to shore of milesVessels that routinely travel outside this distance generally have MW/HF-SSB, satellite communications or bothCW communication on MW/HF is no longer usedNo license is currently required for pleasure boats operating on the FM channels in US territorial waters
222 VHF-FM FCC limits VHF-FM marine radios to a maximum of 25 watts Radios are also required to be capable of 1-watt operation for short range and in-harbor useVHF and MW/HF marine radio use is restricted to vessels on the waterThe use of portables or mobiles to communicate with crew on shore is not allowedMarinas, marine towing services, and fish canneries may be licensed for limited base operations on certain channelsIn an emergency, however, the FCC rules are suspended, and you may use whatever means of communication are necessary to protect life and property.
223 Channel SelectionMarine FM frequencies have been assigned channel numbersChannel 16 has been designated worldwide as a distress and calling frequencyAll vessels are required to maintain a listening "watch" on FM 16 while underwayFM 9 has been designated as an alternate calling frequency
225 Restricted Channels Some channels are not for public use FM 83 is reserved for use by the Coast Guard AuxiliaryFM 22 is for public communication with the Coast Guard, but may not be used by boaters unless specifically instructed to do so by the Coast Guard radio operator on FM 16FM 22 is also used by the Coast Guard to broadcast "Notice To Mariners" messages (NOTAMS), after announcing them on FM 16.FM 6 is an Inter-Ship Safety channel, and is often used for search and rescue operations.List of all marine channels and their assigned uses can be seen at
226 Spoken Emergency Signals "MAYDAY MAYDAY" — The highest priority urgency call.Vessel calling is threatened by grave or immediate danger and requires immediate assistance"PAN PAN" (pronounced "pawn-pawn") — known as an "urgency" callVessel calling has an urgent message concerning the safety of a vessel or person"SECURITE" (pronounced "securitay")Official messages about the safety of navigation or important weather warnings"SILENCE"Declared by Coast GuardOnly units involved in incident may transmit on frequency under order lifted by Coast Guard
227 Incident ReportingTwo types of incidents that hams may need to report directly to the Coast GuardVessels in distressReported directly to the nearest Coast Guard stationOil or chemical spills into public watersCoast Guard's National Response Center atNRC Internet Web site
228 Distress CallsListen first to see if the Coast Guard responds within a minute or twoIf not, attempt to gather the following information:Position of the vessel involvedNumber of persons on boardNature of the distressName of the vesselCall sign (if any)Length and type of vesselColorAny descriptive features — number of masts, flying bridge, etcWeather conditions on sceneOn board emergency equipment: life raft, Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB) and class of EPIRB if possibleFrequency being used to communicate with the vesselOnce you have the information, advise all persons on board to don life jackets, and contact either 911 dispatch or the closest Coast Guard facility by phone. In some cases, a local fire or police boat may be able to respond more quickly than the Coast Guard, who may be some distance away. Identify yourself as an Amateur Radio operator relaying an emergency message. Pass on all the information that you have gathered and assist as requested. Provide your name and phone number or other means of contact so that responding local public safety agencies or the Coast Guard may reach you if needed. It is possible that you are the only station that can communicate with the distressed vessel.
229 Distress CallsContact either 911 dispatch or the closest Coast Guard facility by phoneIn some cases, a local fire or police boat may be able to respond more quickly than the Coast GuardIdentify yourself as an Amateur Radio operator relaying an emergency messagePass on all the information that you have gathered and assist as requestedProvide your name and phone number or other means of contact so that responding local public safety agencies or the Coast Guard may reach you if needed
230 Routine Communication Calling a vessel on a marine channel is very similar to 2 metersIf using channel 9, transmit the name of the vessel you want to talk with twice, followed by your station’s name twice, and the channel designation."Fishy Business, Fishy Business, this is Dream Boat, Dream Boat, Channel 9“Listen for at least 30 seconds before repeating the callOnce you get an answer, direct the station to shift to a "working" channel"Fishy Business this is Dream Boat; shift to channel 69"
231 Routine Communication FCC rules require you to identify your vessel on each transmission, although some stations shift to a shortened call after the initial contact is establishedThe use of 10 codes and "Q" signals is not permitted on marine VHF-FM
232 MW/HF SSB Communications U.S Coast Guard maintains "guard" on 2182 kHzCalling and distress frequencyMW and HF maritime frequencies and assignmentsMany boaters carry HF amateur radio aboard.Amateur Radio Maritime Nets
234 VTSMission:To enhance navigation, vessel safety and security, marine environmental protection, and promote safe and secure vessel movements by reducing the potential for recreational and commercial marine accidents/casualties and loss of life. This includes the safe, secure, and efficient flow of commerce via the Marine Transportation System.
235 In a year, VTS… Manages approx 220,000 transits Assists in 150 Search & Rescue CasesResponds to 300 Vessel CasualtiesCollates information for 30 pollution incidentsAssists in approx 200 Law Enforcement casesIntervenes in 55 situations to prevent marine accidents
241 Lesson 21 ActivityIf you live within fifty miles of a seacoast, a major navigable river, or any of the Great Lakes, identify the U.S Coast Guard station nearest to your community and its telephone number.Note: *CG on a cell phone in this area will connect to the Coast Guard
242 Lesson 21 Questions When is it permissible to utilize channel FM 22? At anytime after making an initial call on FM 16.Whenever channel FM 9 or FM 16 are busy.Only when directed by the Coast Guard.At no time; it is for Coast Guard use only
243 Lesson 21 QuestionsWhat should you do if you hear an unanswered marine distress call?Contact the nearest Coast Guard facility and advise them of the call.Answer the caller immediately and ask what the emergency is.Get in your own boat and attempt a rescue.Listen for a response. If none, respond and gather all information possible and then contact the nearest Coast Guard facility.
244 Lesson 21 QuestionsWhen must you identify yourself on VHF-FM marine radio?Only on the initial callOnly on the initial call and the final callOnly on the original call and then every ten minutes.On all transmissions.
245 Lesson 21 Questions Which vessels operate MW/HF SSB radios? Any vessel that wants to.Only sea-going vessels that operate outside the range of VHF-FM radios.Only those vessels that operate offshore and have a VHF-FM marine radio.Only those vessels that have an Amateur Radio operator aboard.
246 Lesson 21 QuestionsWhich channel(s) may be used for calling another vessel?FM 83FM 9FM 16Both FM 9 and FM 16
250 Regularly Scheduled Nets Many local ARES and RACES groups hold regularly scheduled training netsKing County Weekly ARES/RACES NETTime: Sundays, 8:00 p.m. local timeRepeater: (103.5)Seattle ACS NetMonday evening at 7:00 p.m. on the RepeaterSaturday 10 a.m.MST NetThursday evening at 8:00 PM on the Repeater
251 Other Resources King County ARES/RACES Frequency Plan Washington State ARES/RACES Website:
252 Local Classroom & On-Air Training Sessions Your emcomm organization and/or served agency may offer a variety of educational opportunitiesAmerican Red Cross' Introduction to Disasters and Disaster Damage Assessment coursesOn-air training sessions may be held on a repeater or simplex frequency
253 Public Service Events “Planned Disaster” Some of the best practice for tactical disaster communication is your local "athon“Bike-athon, walk-athon or crawl-athonThe larger the event, the better the experienceLarge, fast moving event closely simulates the conditions experienced in disaster communication situations“Planned Disaster”
254 Other Resources Learning Resources on the Internet FEMA ICS courses CPR / First AidCommunications AcademyUrban survivalWashington State SAR academyBooksSoftware
255 ARECC Levels II and IIIARECC Level II is designed for those who wish to further develop net management skills.Course is designed to prepare you for the jobs of NCS and Net Manager.ARECC Level III is designed for emergency communication managers at all levels.If you are, or plan to be, an AEC, EC, DEC, or SEC, this is the course for you.Level III is also recommended for Net Managers.
256 Lesson 22 ActivityChoose the next step you will take to either become involved with a local emcomm group, and/or the next step in your emcomm education. Share your choices with your mentor.Suppose that you were placed in charge of training a new group of emcomm team members. To what five topics would you give the highest priority?
257 Lesson 22 QuestionsWhich of the following was NOT recommended as a means of practicing actual emcomm skills?Regularly scheduled netsOn-air training sessionsDiscussion groupsPublic service events
258 Lesson 22 QuestionsWhat is the purpose of the next course in this series (ARECC Level II)?To reinforce the skills and knowledge presented in ARECC Level I.To provide training for prospective Emergency Operation Center Managers.To prepare individuals for the jobs of NCS and Net Manager.To prepare individuals for the jobs of of DEC or SEC.
259 Lesson 22 QuestionsWhat is the purpose of the third course in this series (ARECC Level III)?To reinforce the skills and knowledge presented in ARECC Level II.To provide training for prospective Emergency Operation Center Managers.To prepare individuals for the jobs of NCS and Net Manager.To prepare individuals for management level emcomm positions.
261 Some Concepts to Consider Communication modes fall into several categories:Point to point -- Telephone, fax, some digital radio modesMulti-point -- Voice and CW radio, some digital modesHigh precision -- Fax, , digital modesLow precision -- Voice, CW, telephoneHigh priority -- Voice, telephoneLow priority -- Fax, , digital modes, CW
262 Some Concepts to Consider Messages fall into similar categories:Point to point -- Messages intended for one partyPoint to multi-point -- Messages intended for a groupMulti-point to point -- Messages from members of a group directed to one stationHigh precision -- Lists of items, medical or technical terminology, specialized or detailed informationLow precision -- Traffic reports, damage estimates, simple situation reportsHigh priority -- Fast delivery is criticalLow priority -- Messages can be delivered in a more relaxed time frameEach type of message should be sent using the most appropriate mode, taking into consideration the message's contents, and its destination(s).
263 Some Concepts to Consider Each type of message should be sent using the most appropriate mode, taking into consideration the message's contents, and its destination(s)Example:A localized flash flood hit a north Florida county a few years ago, prompting the evacuation of a low-lying neighborhood.The Red Cross opened a shelter in a church several miles away from the affected area.ARES was mobilized to provide communication support.
264 Example The shelter still had electricity and phone service. The ARES operator on duty was using his battery-operated 2-meter hand-held radio and the wide-area repeater to talk to Red Cross HQ across town.The ham was reading a three-page list of names and addresses of evacuees who had checked into the shelter.To ensure proper transcription, he was spelling each name phonetically, pausing after each name to see if the headquarters station needed fills.Time-consuming process. The operator had been reading for almost 15 minutes and was still on the second page of the list
265 ExampleLess than 10 feet away from his operating position sat a fax machineThe EC turned on the machine, dialed the Red Cross fax number, and fed in the remaining page of the listThe ham on duty had used over 15 minutes of air time and precious battery capacity to read two pagesThe third page was faxed in less than 20 seconds
266 After Action Report on Example Training and practice had led them to concentrate on 2-meter voice to the exclusion of other modes of communicationSo, instead of an efficient, point-to-point communication channel (telephone line), they had used a busy multi-point channel (the wide-area repeater)Instead of using a mode that generated automatic hard copy, they used one that required handwritten transcriptionInstead of a high-precision transfer (fax), they had used a low-precision one (voice) requiring spelling and phoneticsThe repeater had been needed at the time for a different type of communication -- the transfer of mobile operator's reportsThe "broadcast" of evacuee's names and addresses over non-secure communication channels was a violation of Red Cross policy
267 Tactical Messages Low-precision and time-critical Can be passed most efficiently using voiceCan be formal written trafficIt may mean that the microphone is handed to a person from the served agency
268 Lists and Detailed Messages Long lists of suppliesDetails where accuracy is importantVoice transmission can introduce errorsLong messages can waste valuable net resourcesDigital modes (including land-line fax and )Best means of handling these messagesFast and accurate“Repeatable accuracy”
269 Sensitive Information Names and addresses of evacuees should never be transmitted over voice channelsThieves with scanners can use this information to loot unattended homesDigital transmissions require more than a simple scanner to interceptThey cannot be relied upon for absolute privacyIf absolute privacy is required, the message should not be transmitted by Amateur RadioIn some cases, the most appropriate method might be hand delivery by a radio-dispatched courier
270 Digital Modes Large volumes of written or high precision traffic Health and welfare trafficLogistics messages involving lists of people or suppliesVirtually error-free transmissionRelays can be accomplished by retransmitting the received digital messagePacket systems can provide automatic relays
271 Winlink 2000 Digital email-to-radio network HF stations using Pactor VHF packet using local "TelPac" (telnet to packet) nodes
272 HF Best digital modes for HF operation are Packet AMTOR mode B PSK31 in QPSK mode
273 VHF/UHFTNC2 (Terminal Node Controller, Version 2) FM packet is the most common mode
274 PacketError-free in point to point "automated repeat request" (ARQ) or "forward error correction"(FEC) broadcast modes“Bulletin board"Sending station "posts" his messages on the bulletin boardOther stations can then retrieve their messages at willUrgent messages can also be sent directly to the receiving station if needed
275 Bulletin BoardsUseful when a number of stations are sending messages to a single point, such as aCommand post,Weather service office, orEmergency operations center.Useful in handling outgoing traffic.Stations with traffic can post messages to the bulletin-boardTraffic handlers can periodically pick up the traffic and send it to the outbound NTS nets
276 WiFi or 802.11 Used to link computers within a home or office 802.11b/g 2.4GHz wireless EthernetAmateurs have begun experimenting with long-range applicationsJuly 2005 issue of QSTOff-the-shelf consumer grade equipmentSmall dish antennasPaths up to 34 miles and data rates of 150KB
277 WiFi Distance RecordA small wireless Internet service provider in Idaho and a wireless equipment start-up claim to have set a new record for transmitting data across a wireless link (August 2005)Microserv Computer Technologies, based in Idaho Falls, and Trango Broadband Wireless, a fixed-wireless broadband equipment maker, announced that they wirelessly transmitted data over unlicensed spectrum miles.
278 AMTOR Mode B AMateur Teleprinting Over Radio Sending station sends each character twiceReceiving station does not acknowledge the data receivedIf a receiving station matches both instances of a character, that character will be printed, otherwise some error symbol is printedAdvanced teletype modeWith forward error correctionIdeal for high precision messages over long distances
279 PSK31 Phase Shift Keying, 31 Baud Keyboard-to-keyboard Usable in very poor conditions makes it ideal for HF emergency communicationHigh efficiencyVery narrow bandwidthEven a low power transmitter will workBPSK, no error correctionQPSK, forward error-correctionBPSK should be used unless the received copy is poor, since QPSK is 3dB less efficient and requires more careful tuning.Under all but the worst conditions, BPSK will provide perfect transmissions.
280 Packet Teleprinting Over Radio (PACTOR) Packet and AMTOR combinationHF use onlyUses FEC and ARQ modesStandard keyboardQuite robustCan be slowed by poor band conditions
281 TCP/IP Packet Advantages over conventional packet protocols JNOS JNOS is a TCP/IP oriented systemIf you're familiar with Internet , you're familiar with typing into JNOSSMTP mail protocol and can interface to InternetPrint incoming messages automatically onto a printerUp to eight windows for multiple sessions for messagingSupports multiple communications ports and multiple radio/TNC combinationsSharewareNOS (Network Operating System)
282 APRS® Automatic Position Reporting System Track a station's location GPS receiverPosition information is transmitted to other stations using APRS packet softwareDisplaying the location of the sending station on a mapMessaging mode similar to Internet "Instant Messaging" where quick one-line messages can be exchangedAutomatic Packet Reporting SystemAutomated reporting of data from digital weather stations
283 APRS®Emcomm APRS UseLocations of various emergency vehicles can be tracked visually in real time in an automated and unattended fashionWeather and other environmental data can be reported automatically in near real-time
284 Related Considerations Become familiar with, and practice using, any digital mode or system well in advance of an emergencyMost are complex enough that some experience is required to use them efficiently and effectivelyHigh duty-cycle of many digital modes requires a rugged radio and power supply with adequate cooling
286 Amateur Television (ATV) Slow-scanUses a voice-grade channel to send a still picture line by lineCan take more than a minute for a color picture to be transmittedFast-scanLive, full motion TV similar to what you see on commercial TV, but usually at reduced qualityNo emcomm ATV transmission should ever be "staged" for the camera
288 Lesson 23 ActivitiesConsider your own personal radio resources. Of the modes mentioned within this lesson, which would you consider acquiring for your own use? Why? Which would you not consider acquiring? Why not?Select three of the digital modes. Identify the positive and negative aspects of using each of the three in an emcomm situation.Based on the considerations you have identified above, develop a simple communication equipment plan for a small emcomm unit based in a small community. Within your plan, be sure to identify the equipment and modes you would employ.How would the plan you developed above be different if your emcomm group were quite large and located in a large community?
289 Lesson 23 QuestionsWhich of the following describes your purpose as an emergency communicator?To operate the radio.To coordinate communications for the EOC.To provide accurate and rapid transfer of information from one place to another.To provide internal communication support to one (and only one) responding agency.
290 Lesson 23 QuestionsWhich of the following best describes tactical messages?They are high precision and time critical.They are low precision and time critical.They are point-to-point and NOT time critical.They are point-to-multipoint and low precision.
291 Lesson 23 QuestionsLong lists and detailed messages are best handled by which of the following modes?Voice or CWFax or digitalCW or digitalPhone or fax
292 Lesson 23 QuestionsDuring an emergency, you are using voice transmissions to pass messages. Which of the following "guidelines" should govern your action if you were asked to transmit the names and addresses of victims?Transmit the information exactly as presented to you.Use a pre-established code to transmit the information.If absolute privacy is required, do not transmit the information by Amateur Radio.Switch to a digital mode and be assured of complete privacy.
293 Lesson 23 QuestionsWhich of the following PSK31 modes has an error correction feature?BPSKQPSKRPSKSPSK
294 Lesson 23 ReferencesPSK - Has RTTY's Replacement Arrived? By Steve Ford, WB8IMYSurfin': Make a Packet Racket with a Sound Card By Stan Horzepa, WA1LOUGetting Started in Digital Communications - RTTY, Packet, Amtor, PSK31ARESPACK software (free download)