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Lesson 5 Second Declension Nouns

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1 Lesson 5 Second Declension Nouns

2 Second Declension Nouns (-o"-type)
2nd Decl. -o"-type endings: Sing. Pl. Nom. -o" -oi Gen. -ou -wn Dat. -w/ -oi" Acc. -on -ou" Voc. -e -oi Example: to,poj (stem = top&) Sing. Pl. Nom. tovpo" tovpoi Gen. tovpou tovpwn Dat. tovpw/ tovpoi" Acc. tovpon tovpou" Voc. tovpe tovpoi Memorize! To “decline” a noun is to give all its “cases” in proper order. Cases indicate grammatical function of noun in sentence (subject, direct object, etc.). Greek nouns fall into one of three main declension patterns: 1st declension – mostly feminine nouns 2nd declension – mostly masculine and neuter nouns 3rd declension – masculine, feminine, and neuter nouns 2nd declension nouns with nominative in &oj are mostly masculine (a few are fem.). Noun accent is “persistent” – stays where it is in nom. sing. if it can.

3 Second Declension -o"-type Nouns
Translation: Sing. Pl. Nominative tovpo" a place (subj.) tovpoi places (subj.) Genitive tovpou of/from a place tovpwn of/from places Dative tovpw/ to/for/by/with/in a place tovpoi" to/for/by/with/in places Accusative tovpon a place (obj.) tovpou" places (obj.) Vocative tovpe O, place tovpoi O, places Greek nouns have 5 or 8 cases (depending on how you count): Genitive and ablative have same ending = GA or genitive. Locative, instrumental, dative have same ending = LID or dative. Locating (parsing) a noun: Case, gender, number > dictionary form to,pouj - acc. masc. pl. > to,poj to,pw| - dat. (or LID) masc. sing. > to,poj to,pou - gen. (or GA) masc. sing. > to,poj

4 Introduction to “Case”
English pronouns have case forms: He sees the son. (nominative = subject) The son sees him. (objective = direct object) His son is seeing. (possessive = adjective) English nouns usually do not: A man sees a son. (nominative = subject) A son sees a man. (objective = direct object) A man’s son is seeing. (possessive = adjective) Note: Spelling of man does not change in # 4 and 5. How do we know man is subject in 4 but direct object in 5? By word order—usually subject-verb-direct object.

5 Introduction to “Case”
In Greek, grammatical function of a noun is indicated not by word order but by case endings. a;nqrwpoj ble,pei ui`o,n) (nominative = subject) ui`o.j ble,pei a;nqrwpon) (accusative = direct object) ui`o.j avnqrw,pou ble,pei) (genitive = possession) Allows word order to be more flexible (not arbitrary): ginw,skei fi,lon or fi,lon ginw,skei = He knows a friend. fi,loj ginw,skei or ginw,skei fi,loj = A friend knows. Rule: Translate by case ending, not by word order. Learn the basic function and translation of each case as given on the following chart:

6 Greek Cases Abbrev. Case name Basic function Translation Nom.
Nominative Naming; pointing out; designating. As subject or predicate nominative. Gen. or GA Genitive Possession; description. of; ’s. Ablative Separation; source. from; out of. Dat. or LID Locative Location. in; on; at. Instrumental Means by which. by; with. Dative Personal interest; reception. to; for; indirect object. Acc. Accusative Limit to which action of verb extends. As direct object. Voc. Vocative Direct address. As direct address.

7 Translating Greek Nouns
Greek to English: Observe case of noun and translate accordingly. ginw,skei fi,lon) He knows a friend. ginw,skei fi,loj) A friend knows. English to Greek: Determine grammatical function needed and choose proper case. A friend writes. fi,loj gra,fei) He sees a friend. ble,pei fi,lon) If Greek sentence has noun subject, verb will be in third person. Don’t use “he/she/it/they” in translation.

8 Homework Do declension practice worksheet.
Exercises # 29A (Greek to English): Locate each noun and verb. Translate the word or sentence. Exercises # 29B (English to Greek): Determine grammatical function of noun. Choose appropriate case.

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