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Presentation on theme: "RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS: ANTIBIOTIC PRESCRIBING"— Presentation transcript:

A Summary of the NICE guidance

2 RATIONALE “Evidence shows that antibiotics have limited effectiveness in treating a large proportion of RTIs in adults and children and complications are likely to be rare if antibiotics are withheld. General practice consultation rates in England and Wales show that a quarter of the population will visit their GP because of an RTI each year and they are the reason for 60% of all antibiotic prescribing in general practice.”

3 DEFINITIONS Respiratory tract infection (RTI) is defined as any infectious disease of the upper or lower respiratory tract. Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) include the common cold, laryngitis, pharyngitis/tonsillitis, acute rhinitis, acute rhinosinusitis and acute otitis media. Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) include acute bronchitis, bronchiolitis, pneumonia and tracheitis.

4 STATING THE OBVIOUS “At the first face-to-face contact in primary care, including walk-in centres and emergency departments, offer a clinical assessment, including: a history (presenting symptoms, use of OTC/self medication, PMH, risk factors, co-morbidities examination to establish diagnosis and exclude complications”

5 OFFER TO ALL PATIENTS Advice about the usual natural history and average total duration of the illness acute otitis media acute otitis media: 4 days acute sore throat/pharyngitis/tonsillitis: 1 week common cold: 1.5 weeks acute rhinosinusitis: 2.5 weeks acute cough/acute bronchitis : 3 weeks Advice about managing symptoms including fever (i.e. analgesia, antipyretics etc.)

No prescribing Delayed prescribing Issuing a prescription and advising that it be cashed if symptoms worsen or fail to improve within a given timeframe Immediate prescribing

7 DO NOT PRESCRIBE 1 “Negotiate a no antibiotic or delayed antibiotic prescribing strategy for patients with: acute otitis media acute otitis media acute sore throat/pharyngitis/tonsillitis common cold acute rhinosinusitis acute cough/acute bronchitis”

8 DO NOT PRESCRIBE 2 If you don’t prescribe, offer patients
Reassurance that antibiotics are not needed immediately because they will make little difference to symptoms and may have side effects and a clinical review if the RTI worsens or becomes prolonged Safety netting

9 DO NOT PRESCRIBE 3 For the delayed antibiotic prescribing, offer patients Reassurance that antibiotics are not needed immediately because they will make little difference to symptoms and may have side effects Advice about using the delayed prescription if symptoms do not settle or get significantly worse Advice about re-consulting if symptoms get significantly worse despite using the delayed prescription

10 CONSIDER PRESCRIBING Consider a no antibiotic, delayed antibiotic or an immediate antibiotic prescribing strategy (depending on severity) for: Children younger than 2 years with bilateral acute otitis media Children with otorrhoea who have acute otitis media Patients with acute sore throat/acute tonsillitis when three or more *Centor criteria are present

11 *CENTOR CRITERIA Presence of tonsillar exudate
Tender anterior cervical lymphadenopathy or lymphadenitis History of fever Absence of cough

12 DO PRESCRIBE Offer immediate antibiotics or further investigation/management for patients who: are systemically unwell have symptoms and signs suggestive of serious illness and/or complications (particularly pneumonia, mastoiditis, peritonsillar abscess, peritonsillar cellulitis, intraorbital or intracranial complications) are at high risk of serious complications because of pre-existing comorbidity. This includes patients with significant heart, lung, renal, liver or neuromuscular disease, immunosuppression, cystic fibrosis, and young children who were born prematurely. are older than 65 years with acute cough and two or more of the following, or older than 80 years with acute cough and one or more of the following: hospitalisation in previous year type 1 or type 2 diabetes history of congestive heart failure current use of oral glucocorticoids



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