FACTS The four industries with the largest percentage of total employed women in 2013 were: Department of Labor, Data & Statistics, Women in the Labor Force3
Women represent 46.8% of U.S. labor force (U.S. Department of Labor, 2014) Employment of women has had a continuous growth over the last 10 years (U.S. Department of Labor, 2014) Executive management positions are low in comparison to men (U.S. Department of Labor, 2014) The number of women in the city of Detroit, Michigan local government’s workforce increased from 38% in 1968, 68% in 2007, and 69% in 2011 (City of Detroit Human Resources department [CDHRD], 2012).
1974 first African American mayor elected to the city of Detroit Employment, in the local government, is primarily clerical and entry-level positions. Although women made up 69% of the workforce of the city of Detroit local government, only 9% of executive managers are women (CDHRD, 2012). Female executives are still facing many obstacles in their effects to achieve high-level management and leadership positions (Dennis and Kunkel, 2004).
The lack of insight local government leaders have of the exemplary leadership practices of women in executive management.
To share and explain the results of a quantitative descriptive study of the leadership practices of 124 women executives in local government. Also, to provide an informational guide for local government, public, and not- for-profit organizations to increase the hiring and retention of women in executive positions.
Number of Years of employment- 0-5, 6-11, 12- 17, and over 18 years. Years as executive manager-05, 6-11, 12-17, and over 18 years. Education level-Associate, Bachelor, and Master. Hiring criteria-entry level nonmanager, entry level manager, mid-manager, executive manager. Number of subordinates-10-25, 26-50, 51-75, and greater than 75.
Modeling the way -articulates and exemplifies values such as trust and respect Inspiring a shared vision -foresee the future and plan for opportunities. People are willing to follow. Challenging the process -search for opportunities and change existing processes. Enabling others to act -foster collaboration and strengthen other. Creating a climate of trust and facilitating relationships. Encouraging the heart -acknowledge the followers need for recognition and encourages other to respond to change (Kouzes & Posner, 2007).
Design Quantitative, descriptive correlational research Measureable outcomes Data Collection 124 Executive women in city of Detroit local government Demographic questionnaire and Leadership Practices Inventory-Self-survey 30 days availability – Survey Monkey
Results of DQ1. How Long Have You Worked in Local Government? Years of employment Frequency Percent 0-5 years 8 13.33 6-11 years 14 23.33 12-17 years 21 35.00 Over 18 years 17 28.33 Total 60 100.00
Results of DQ2. How Many Years as an Executive Manager in Local Government? Years as executive manager Frequency Percent 0-5 years 25 41.67 6-11 years 29 48.33 11-17 years 6 10.00 Over 18 years 0 0 Total 60 100.00
Results of DQ3. What is Your Highest Completed Level of Education? Educational background Frequency Percent Associate degree/equivalent 1 1.67 Bachelor degree 14 23.33 Master degree 45 75.00 Total 60 100.00
Results of DQ4. At What Level in Local Government Were You Hired ? Hiring criteria Frequency Percent Entry-level non-manager 30 50.00 Entry-level manager 26 43.33 Mid-manager 3 5.00 Executive manager 1 1.67 Total 60 100.00
Results of DQ5. How Many Direct and Indirect Subordinates Are You Responsible for? Number of subordinatesFrequency Percent 10-25 31 51.67 26-50 23 38.33 51-75 5 8.33 Greater than 75 1 1.67 Total 60 100.00
Results of Leadership Practices Inventory Self (LPI-S) Leadership practice Frequency Percent Encouraging the heart27 45.00 Enabling others to act14 23.33 Challenging the process 8 13.35 Modeling the way 7 11.66 Inspiring a shared vision 4 6.66 Total60 100.00
One goal of the study results was to provide decision-making insight and knowledge to local government. The hiring criteria and length of employment results implications. Results can serve as a tool for those women seeking leadership opportunities in local government, public, and not-for-profit organizations. Results can serve as an informational guide for these organizations to increase the hiring and retention of women in executive positions.
Encouraging the heart was the most prevalent practice of the women executive participants. A noticeable relationship between the hiring criteria and the leadership practice of encouraging the heart. No significant relationship between the demographics and the leadership practice.
In 2011, 58% of university presidents were age 61 or older (American Council on Education, 2012). The passage of Title IX of the Educational Amendments Act of 1972 and the Women’s Educational Equity Act in 1974 brought the greatest change in the treatment of women in higher education (Stromquist, 1993; Glazer-Raymo, 2008). Although women earn the majority of postsecondary degrees, they occupy just 26 percent of all college presidencies (American Council on Education, 2012).
Year19861998200120062011 Public and Private Percent Doctorate- Granting 3.813.213.313.822.3 Master’s10.018.720.321.522.8 Bachelor’s16.120.418.723.222.9 Associate7.922.426.828.833.0 Special Focus 6.614.8 16.620.5 All other9.519.321.123.026.4
Equal Opportunity Laws have had some impact on the hiring of women to executive positions. But, there still exists a disparity the hiring of women to executive management positions. Provide women in entry-level nonmanagement positions with training and leadership development. Research the leadership practices of women in post-secondary education.
American Council on Education (2012). The American college president. Washington, DC. City Charter. (1993). City of Detroit Chapter Commission. City of Detroit Human Resources Department, Statistical departmental and employment data (2012). Retrieved from the city of Detroit, Michigan archived department. Dennis, M. R., & Kunkel, A. D. (2004). Perceptions of men, women, & CEOS: The effects of gender identity. Social Behavior & Personality an International Journal. 32 (2), 155-171. Glazer-Raymo, J. (2008). The Feminist Agenda. In J. Glazer-Raymo (Ed.) Unfinished agendas: New and continuing gender challenges in higher education (pp. 1-34). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z. (2007). The leadership challenge(4th ed). San Francisco, CA: John Wiley. Stromquist, N.P. (1993). Sex-equity legislation in education: The state as promoter of women’s rights. Review of Educational Research, 63(4). United States Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2014 ed.). Data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics- Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey.
Thank you for your attention and audience. Are you interested in being a part of a research study on women, executive positions, and education? Any Questions? Please contact me: Janisse.firstname.lastname@example.org Janisse.email@example.com Janisse.green@Comcast.net Janisse.green@Comcast.net Also on Linkedin