Air Circulation Fig. 6-10, p. 107 Fig. 6-8, p. 107
Short-Term Climate Changes: ENSO Fig. 6-12 p. 108 ENSO—El Nino Southern Oscillation (shift in thermocline) causing drought in Australia and rains in the Americas; can affect aquatic populations (plankton, fish, birds)
Rain Shadow Effect Windward side gets moisture and leeward side is dry Fig. 6-15 p. 110
Figure 3 - Yakima & Mt. Adams Storms have a difficult time escaping the Cascades with their moisture intact because many of the mountain peaks reach more than 10,000 feet above sea level. Mt. Adams is 12, 307 feet above sea level and the highest point in Washington, Mt. Rainier, is 14, 410 feet above sea level. The valleys on the eastern side of the Cascades, however, are much lower. The average elevation for Yakima is 1,100 feet and the Tri-Cities is only at 400 feet above sea level. This sharp rise and steep decline in elevation is the setup for the process known as the Pacific Northwest rain shadow.
Biomes: Climate and Life on Land Relationship between latitude and altitude— as latitude increases, the temps decrease and lower biodiversity; as altitude increase, temps decrease and lower biodiversity
Grassland, Tundra, and Chaparral Biomes Tropical grasslands (savannas)—warm temps year round but have a wet and dry seasons Temperate grasslands—winters are cold summers are warm and dry; fertile soil for food production Polar grasslands (Arctic tundra)—cold, has layer of permafrost (permanently frozen soil just below surface) Alpine tundra—occurs above the limit of tree growth but below permanent snow line on high mountains; vegetation similar to arctic tundra Chaparral—hot, dry summers and rainy season in winter due to closeness to sea (high risk of fire) Refer to Figs. 6-23, 6-24, and 6-25 pp. 116-119
Forest Biomes Tropical rainforest—heavy rain fall, hot temps and high humidity; high species diversity and poor soil Temperate deciduous forest—found in mid latitudes; most trees lose leaves in winter and produce nutrients in soil Evergreen coniferous forest (boreal forest or taiga)— found in cold climates mostly of evergreens that have needles year round; slow decomposition due to low temps Temperate rain forest (coastal coniferous forest)—large evergreens due to ocean moderating temperature and abundance of water Refer to Figs. 6-29, 6-30, 6-31, and 6-32 pp. 121-124