Presentation on theme: "Millennium Development Goals and the UNECE Region Presentation to the Second Committee October 2004 Brigita Schmögnerová Executive Secretary Economic Commission."— Presentation transcript:
Millennium Development Goals and the UNECE Region Presentation to the Second Committee October 2004 Brigita Schmögnerová Executive Secretary Economic Commission for Europe
2 The UNECE Region is highly diversified Disparities between the most advanced countries (Western Europe and North America), the emerging market economies (new EU members, new acceding countries and a few East European countries), and the less advanced economies (South-East European and CIS countries).
3 Focus on CIS countries and SEE countries Half of the CIS and SEE countries are expected to miss at least one of the MDGs. Deterioration in 1990s; moderate progress in most countries from 2000 might indicate a reversed trend.
4 Factors having an impact: Transition: political, economic, social. Many economies in transition have high unemployment rate, and/or depend on aid. War conflicts, in SEE: 400 thousand killed, 5.5 million refugees or internally displaced. Positive developments: GDP growth in CIS 1999-2003: 7%; 7 out of 15 East European countries and 3 out of 12 CIS countries surpassed the 1989 GDP level.
5 MDG 1: Poverty (halve the proportion of people living on $2 a day) The only region where poverty became more widespread during the 1990s (from 31 million to 90 million). To reduce poverty in the region economic growth is not enough - steps need to be taken to develop pro-poor growth policies and reduce inequality. Proportion of people living on less than $1 a day: Armenia, Tajikistan: 12%; Uzbekistan: 19%; Moldova: 22%.
6 MDG 2: Achieve universal primary education The majority of countries have reached full enrollment. Trends are constant or deteriorating in Albania, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia and Tajikistan. MDG 3: Gender equality The region does well in comparison with others in terms of gender equality in primary schools, but deterioration has been observed in many CIS countries in terms of gender equality in employment, wages and access to assets.
7 MDG 4: Reduce child mortality The region’s "under-five" mortality rate in 1990 was lower than in any other region. The region is making slow progress to meet the MDG but is unlikely to meet the MDG target of 2/3 reduction. However, many countries are likely to reach the level of child mortality of high income countries.
8 MDG 5: Improve maternal health Most countries in the region are unlikely to achieve a 75% reduction in maternal mortality - but many countries already today reach the level of maternal health of high income countries. However, in several low income countries maternal health has deteriorated.
9 MDG 6: Combat HIV, malaria and other diseases The region is experiencing the world's fastest growing HIV/AIDS epidemic and a worrying spread of tuberculosis. More than half of the low and lower middle income countries appear unlikely to achieve this goal. MDG 7: Ensure environmental sustainability The biggest challenge is in water supply and sanitation - there is a serious issue of water quality.
10 The Regional dimension Different sets of consistent policies to be developed at: - country level; - regional level; - international level. All regions are different and regional policies need to be adapted to each region.
11 Factors underlying the differences and commonalities in regional policies for achieving MDGs ESCAP, ECA and ECE: sharp heterogeneity within the region; ESCWA: armed conflicts and weak economic growth; ECLAC: highest income inequality, low growth and growth volatility.
12 Regional perspectives on MDGs: ESCAP 3 groups of performers: Fast achievers - meet income poverty and "on track" in other targets. Slow achievers - South Asia and West Asia - appear on track in income poverty, education and drinking water. Off-track countries - largest number of absolute poor (700 million) - concern in meeting targets on hunger and other goals.
13 Regional perspectives on MDGs: ESCWA The region will not succeed in halving extreme poverty. Large diversity between countries (oil producers and non-oil producers). Political instability affects all goals. Challenges: armed conflicts and weak economic growth.
14 Regional perspectives on MDGs: ECLAC Sharp inequality is an obstacle to achieving the MDGs: the level of inequality worsened in several countries during the 1990s. Slow growth: need to improve international cooperation, competitiveness and governance. Deterioration of natural resources.
15 Regional perspectives on MDGs: ECA Difference between Sub-Saharan Africa and the rest of the continent. Sub-Saharan Africa will have difficulties in meeting targets. Slow growth - need to support pro-poor policies for economic growth.
16 Regional dimension in achieving MDGs: the Role of Regional Commissions 1. To help formulate adequate policies and to facilitate their implementation: Regional trade policies; Regional transport policies; Regional cooperation in environmental protection; Regional security policies etc.
17 Regional dimension in achieving MDGs: the Role of Regional Commissions (cont’d) 2. To provide: Forum for policy dialogue; Forum for exchange of experiences; Assistance in building partnerships; Monitoring of MDG goals; Development of methodology of measurement;Development of methodology of measurement; Comparative analysis in the regions.Comparative analysis in the regions.