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J. Blake 2014 Chandra X-Ray Telescope: launch on July 23, 1999 NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory is a telescope specially designed to detect X-ray emission.

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Presentation on theme: "J. Blake 2014 Chandra X-Ray Telescope: launch on July 23, 1999 NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory is a telescope specially designed to detect X-ray emission."— Presentation transcript:


2 J. Blake 2014

3 Chandra X-Ray Telescope: launch on July 23, 1999 NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory is a telescope specially designed to detect X-ray emission from very hot regions of the Universe such as exploded stars, clusters of galaxies, and matter around black holes Because X-rays are absorbed by Earth's atmosphere, Chandra must orbit above it Chandra Archive 2013 in 60 Seconds OBSERVING SPACE


5 Spitzer Space Telescope launched August 25, 2003 Originally named Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) Renamed December 2003, finally retiring Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) acronym. Named after Lyman Spitzer Jr. OBSERVING SPACE


7 Hubble Space Telescope Launched in 1990 Hubble is a telescope that orbits Earth. Its position above the atmosphere Every 97 minutes, Hubble completes a revolution around Earth, moving at the speed of about five miles per second (8 km per second) fast enough to travel across the United States in about 10 minutes. It is a reflector. Light hits the telescope's main mirror, or primary mirror. It bounces off the primary mirror and encounters a secondary mirror. The secondary mirror focuses the light through a hole in the center of the primary mirror that leads to the telescope's science instruments. Edwin Powell Hubble (1889–1953) OBSERVING SPACE



10 The race for space began in _1957_ when the _Soviet Union_ launched the satellite _Sputnik 1__ into orbit. The United States responded by speeding up its own space program. Sputnik I was the first artificial satellite. A _satellite_ is an object that revolves around another object in space. The moon is a natural satellite of Earth. Soon after Sputnik I was launched the U.S. launched its own satellite _Explorer 1__ into orbit in _1958_. _. Any _spacecraft_ orbiting Earth is an _artificial_ _satellite_. RACE FOR SPACE

11 Later in 1958 The United States established a government agency called _NASA__ to oversee the space program. Over the next few years the United States and the Soviet Union placed many more satellites into orbit around earth. There are currently approximately 3000 satellites operating in Earth’s orbit, according to the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), out of roughly 8,000 man- made objects in total. Over the history of space flight, NASA has tracked more than 24,500 space objects orbiting Earth. The majority of these have fallen into unstable orbits and incinerated during reentry. U.S. SPACE RESEARCH

12 In 1961, the space race and competition between the Soviets and the United States heated up even more when the soviets launched Vostok I and were the first to send a _human_ into space. Yuri Gagarin flew one orbit around the Earth. One month later Alan Shepard was the first American in space. His space craft named Freedom 7 was part of the Mercury program. The first American to orbit the Earth was John Glen, who was launched into space in 1962 aboard Friendship 7. The spacecraft he travelled in was called a _capsule_ because it was like a small cap on the end of the rocket. The tiny capsule orbited the Earth three times before returning to the surface SPACE RACE HEATS UP

13 The American effort to land astronauts on the moon was named the _Apollo Program__. Between 1964 and 1972 the United States and the Soviet Union sent many unmanned spacecraft to explore the moon. In 1969 three American astronauts, _Neil Armstrong__, _Buzz Aldrin_ and _Michael Collins__ entered a tiny space craft called Eagle and descended to the moon’s surface in an area called the Sea of Tranquility. THE GREAT APOLLO PROGRAM

14 People have dreamed of travelling through space for centuries. In the 1860s, science fiction writer Jules Verne envisioned a spacecraft shot to the moon out of a huge cannon. A _Rocket__ is a device that expels gas in one direction to move in the opposite direction. Rocket technology originated in China hundreds of years ago and gradually spread together countries. Modern rockets were first developed in the early 1900s and were greatly influenced by Russian scientists. Rocket design made major advances during World War II. Military rockets were used to carry explosives up to 300 kilometers. A rocket can be as small as your finger or as large as a skyscraper. An essential feature of any rocket, though, is that it expels gas in one direction. A _Rocket__ moves forward when gases shooting out the back of the rocket push it in the opposite direction. ROCKET MAN

15 The movement of a rocket demonstrates one of Newton’s laws of Physics. For every force, or action, there is an equal and opposite force or reaction. The reaction force that propels a rocket forward is called _Thrust_ The amount of thrust depends on several factors, including the mass and speed of the gases propelled out of the rocket. The greater the thrust, the greater a rocket’s velocity. _Velocity_ is speed in a given direction. DOWN GOES NEWTON

16 In order to lift off the ground, a rocket must have more upward thrust than the downward force of gravity. Once a rocket is off the ground, it must reach a certain velocity in order to go into orbit. _Orbital Velocity__ is the velocity a rocket must achieve to establish an orbit around Earth. If the rocket moves slower than orbital velocity, Earth’s _gravity_ will cause it to fall back to the surface. If the rocket has an even greater velocity, it can fly off into space. _Escape Velocity__ is the velocity a rocket must reach to fly beyond a planet’s gravitational pull. The main advantage of a multistage rocket is that the total Weight_ of the rocket is greatly reduced as the rocket _Rises___. KEEP IT ROCKET, MAN

17 1.What was the space race? What event began the space race? 2.What countries were a part of the space race? 3.What was the Apollo program? 4.What is a rocket? 5. What is thrust? How do rockets create thrust? 6.What is the difference between orbital and escape velocities? 7. Place these events in the correct sequence: first humans on the moon, Sputnik I, first American in space, John Glen orbits the Earth, NASA formed, Yuri Gagarin orbits the Earth. QUESTIONS TO ANSWER


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