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Introduction to Databases Transparencies 1. ©Pearson Education 2009 Objectives Common uses of database systems. Meaning of the term database. Meaning.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Databases Transparencies 1. ©Pearson Education 2009 Objectives Common uses of database systems. Meaning of the term database. Meaning."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Databases Transparencies 1

2 ©Pearson Education 2009 Objectives Common uses of database systems. Meaning of the term database. Meaning of the term Database Management System (DBMS). Components of the DBMS environment. Typical functions of a DBMS. Advantages/disadvantages of DBMSs. 2

3 ©Pearson Education 2009 Examples of Database Systems Purchases from the supermarket Purchases using your credit card Booking a holiday at the travel agents Using the local library Renting a DVD Using the Internet 3

4 ©Pearson Education 2009 Data and Information Data is raw (unprocessed) facts that have some relevancy to an individual or organization. Information is data that has been processed or given some structure that brings meaning to an individual or organization. 4

5 ©Pearson Education 2009 Database Shared collection of logically related data (and a description of this data), designed to meet the information needs of an organization. 5

6 ©Pearson Education 2009 DBMS A software system that enables users to define, create, and maintain the database and that provides controlled access to this database. 6

7 ©Pearson Education 2009 Database Application/System Database Application A computer program that interacts with the database by issuing an appropriate request (typically an SQL statements) to the DBMS. Database System The collection of database applications that interact with the database along with the DBMS and the database itself. 7

8 ©Pearson Education 2009 Sales and Stock Control Departments 8

9 ©Pearson Education 2009 Views Allows each user to have his or her own view of the database. A view is essentially some subset of the database. Benefits include: Provides a level of security. Provides a mechanism to customize the appearance of the database. Presents a consistent, unchanging picture of the structure of the database, even if the underlying database is changed. 9

10 ©Pearson Education 2009 DBMS Architecture 10

11 ©Pearson Education 2009 Components of DBMS Environment Hardware Can range from a PC to a network of computers. Software DBMS, operating system, network software (if necessary) and also the application programs. Data Used by the organization and a description of this data called the schema. 11

12 ©Pearson Education 2009 Components of DBMS Environment Procedures Instructions and rules that should be applied to the design and use of the database and DBMS. People Includes database designers, DBAs, application programmers, and end-users. 12

13 ©Pearson Education 2009 Two-Tier Client-Server Client manages main business and data processing logic and user interface. Server manages and controls access to database. 13

14 ©Pearson Education 2009 Two-Tier C-S Configuration 14

15 ©Pearson Education 2009 Three-Tier C-S Architecture Client side presented two problems preventing true scalability: ‘Thick’ client, requiring considerable resources on client’s computer to run effectively. Significant client side administration overhead. By 1995, three layers proposed, each potentially running on a different platform. 15

16 ©Pearson Education 2009 Three-Tier C-S Architecture User interface layer – runs on client. Business logic and data processing layer – middle tier runs on a server (application server). DBMS – stores data required by the middle tier. This tier may be on a separate server (database server). 16

17 ©Pearson Education 2009 Three-Tier C-S Architecture Advantages: ‘Thin’ client, requiring less expensive hardware. Application maintenance centralized. Easier to modify or replace one tier without affecting others. Separating business logic from database functions makes it easier to implement load balancing. Maps quite naturally to Web environment. 17

18 ©Pearson Education 2009 Three-Tier C-S Configuration 18

19 ©Pearson Education 2009 Database Design The structure of the database is determined during the database design. A system must be data-driven to satisfy an organization’s information needs. A well designed database produces a system that provides the correct information for the decision- making process to succeed. A complete methodology is presented for database design. 19

20 ©Pearson Education 2009 Historical Perspective File-Based Systems are a collection of application programs that perform services for the end users (e.g. reports). Each program defines and manages its own data. 20

21 ©Pearson Education 2009 Limitations of File-Based Systems Separation and isolation of data Each program maintains its own set of data. Users of one program may be unaware of potentially useful data held by other programs. Duplication of data Same data is held by different programs. Wasted space and potentially different values and/or different formats for the same item. 21

22 ©Pearson Education 2009 Limitations of File-Based Approach Data dependence File structure is defined in the program code. Incompatible file formats Programs are written in different languages, and so cannot easily access each other’s files. Fixed Queries/Proliferation of application programs Programs are written to satisfy particular functions. Any new requirement needs a new program. 22

23 ©Pearson Education 2009 DBMS Development Arose because: Definition of data was embedded in application programs, rather than being stored separately and independently. No control over access and manipulation of data beyond that imposed by application programs. Result: The database and Database Management System (DBMS). 23

24 ©Pearson Education 2009 DBMS Development First-generation Hierarchical and Network Second generation Relational Third generation Object-Relational Object-Oriented 24

25 ©Pearson Education 2009 ANSI-SPARC Three Level Architecture 25

26 ©Pearson Education 2009 Three-Level ANSI-SPARC External Level Users’ view of the database. Describes that part of database that is relevant to a particular user. Conceptual Level Community view of the database. Describes what data is stored in database and relationships among the data. 26

27 ©Pearson Education 2009 Three-Level ANSI-SPARC Internal Level Physical representation of the database on the computer. Describes how the data is stored in the database. Schema and Instances The overall description of the database is called the schema. There are three different types of schema, external, conceptual and internal. The data at any particular point in time is called the database instance. 27

28 ©Pearson Education 2009 Three-Level ANSI-SPARC Logical Data Independence Refers to immunity of external schemas to changes in conceptual schema. Physical Data Independence Refers to immunity of conceptual schema to changes in the internal schema. 28

29 ©Pearson Education 2009 Functions of a DBMS Data storage, retrieval, and update. A user-accessible catalog. Transaction support. Concurrency control services. Recovery services. Authorization services. Support for data communication. Integrity services. Services to promote data independence. Utility services. 29

30 ©Pearson Education 2009 Advantages of DBMSs Control of data redundancy Data consistency Sharing of data Improved data integrity Improved maintenance through data independence. 30

31 ©Pearson Education 2009 Disadvantages of DBMSs Complexity Cost of DBMS Cost of conversion Performance Higher impact of a failure 31

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