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Hormones that Affect Blood Sugar

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Presentation on theme: "Hormones that Affect Blood Sugar"— Presentation transcript:

1 Hormones that Affect Blood Sugar

2 Pancreatic Hormones Produced in the islets of Langerhans.
Beta (β) cells produce insulin. Alpha (α) cells produce glucagon.

3 Hormonal Response to High Blood Sugar
↑ blood sugar = release of insulin. Causes muscle, liver and other body cells to become permeable to glucose. Glucose stored as glycogen. Result = ↓ blood sugar.

4 Hormonal Response to Low Blood Sugar
↓ blood sugar = release of glucagon. Promotes breakdown of glycogen into glucose, which is released into the blood. Result = ↑ blood sugar.


6 QUESTION 1 What happens when the body does not produce insulin or the receptors no longer responds to insulin?

7 Suffer from hyperglycemia (high blood sugar).
Diabetes Type I Diabetes (Insulin Dependent): Early degradation of beta cells. Unable to produce insulin. Type II Diabetes (Non-Insulin Dependent): Decreased insulin production or ineffective use of insulin. Controlled with diet, exercise and oral drugs. Suffer from hyperglycemia (high blood sugar).

8 QUESTION 2 If glucose is not taken into body cells, how does the body produce energy?

9 Diabetes Absence of insulin means little or no glucose in body cells.
Cells metabolize fats and proteins for energy.

10 QUESTION 3 With respect to kidney function and water balance, what happens when glucose reabsorption does not occur?

11 Diabetes Kidneys unable to reabsorb all blood glucose, so excess appears in urine. High [glucose] in nephrons draws water out of the plasma. Excessive urination.

12 Adrenal Glands Each composed of two glands.
Adrenal medulla  short-term stress. Adrenal cortex  long-term stress.

13 Adrenal Medulla Produces epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). “Fight-or Flight Response”. ↑ blood sugar (glycogen  glucose). ↑ HR, breathing rate & cell metabolism. Dilation of blood vessels. Pupil dilation.

14 Adrenal Cortex Produces 3 types of hormones: Glucocorticoids.
Mineralcorticoids. Sex hormones.

15 Adrenal Cortex Glucocorticoids (e.g., cortisol): ↑ blood amino acids.
Converted to glucose. Repairs damaged tissues. Fats broken down into fatty acids to ↑ available energy. ↓ insulin to ↓ blood glucose uptake (except brain).


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