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Introduction to matter 8th Grade Science

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1 Introduction to matter 8th Grade Science
Chapter 2 Introduction to matter 8th Grade Science

2 Properties of Matter ____________is anything that takes up space and has mass. _____________is the study of the properties of matter and how matter changes The ____________ and changes in matter depend on its makeup or composition A __________is a single type of matter that is pure (has a specific set of properties)Examples of pure substances:_________________ Matter Chemistry properties substance Sugar and salt

3 Properties of Matter Every form of matter has two kinds of properties:
________ properties – characteristics of a pure substance that can be observed without changing it into another substance. A physical property of water is that it freezes at 0 Solid, liquid, gas are physical properties of matter _________ properties – a characteristic of a pure substance that describes its ability to change into different substances. To observe the chemical properties you must try to change it to another substance. Flammability, reactivity, Physical Chemical

4 Examples of physical and chemical properties
Freezing Bumpy texture and color are physical properties Flexibility – bend into shapes without breaking Chemical Iron forms rust when it is combined with oxygen in air Silver will react with sulfur in air to form tarnish Property of gold is that it does not react easily with oxygen and sulfur

5 Elements An ______________is a pure substance that cannot be broken down into any other substance by chemical or physical means. Simplest substances Identified by specific __________and ______________properties Examples: ______________(foil) and ___________(pennies) Elements can be in solid, liquid or gas form Elements are represented by either one or two-letter symbols such as ___(aluminum) or __ (carbon) element Physical Chemical Aluminum Copper Al C

6 Particles of Elements An ____________is the basic particle from which elements are made Different elements have different properties because their _________ are different. All matter is made up of _____________ Atoms have the ability to combine with ___________. When atoms combine they form a ____________- a force of attraction between two atoms. Atom atoms atoms other atoms Chemical bond

7 When Atoms Combine….. Atoms combine to form larger particles called ___________. Molecules are groups of two or more atoms held together by ________________. Water – two atoms of _________ chemically bonded to one atom of _________. Two atoms of the same element can combine to form a _______. molecules Chemical bonds Hydrogen (H) Oxygen (O) molecule

8 Compounds All ______is made up of _______
Most _________in nature are found combined with other _________. A pure substance made up of two or more elements chemically combined in a set ratio is called a ___________ A compound is represented by ____________ The chemical formula show the elements that are found in the compound and the ratio of the ______ Ex. Carbon dioxide- ratio 1:2 matter elements elements elements compound Chemical formula atoms

9 Chemical Formulas If a different ratio of carbon to oxygen was present – it would be a different___________. When elements are chemically combined, they form compounds having ________that are different from those of the uncombined elements. Examples: silver sulfide Table sugar compound properties

10 Mixtures Elements and compounds are _____________
A __________ is made up of two or more substances – the substances can be elements, compounds, or both. Mixtures differ from compounds in two ways: Each substance in a mixture keeps its____________________ Parts of a mixture are not combined in a_________. Example: soil mixture, sand, clay, water, etc. Not all soil samples are the same Pure substances mixture Individual properties Set ratio

11 Types of Mixtures ________________ - a mixture where you can see the individual parts. Example: salad ________________ - substances are evenly mixed so that the individual substances cannot be seen. Example: lemonade ______________ is an example of a homogeneous mixture. Does not have to be a liquid Air is an example of a solution-gas solution Brass is an example of a solid solution heterogeneous homogeneous solution

12 Separating Mixtures A _________ is difficult to separate into its elements A ________ is not difficult to separate into its components because each component keeps its own _____________. Methods of separating a mixture: Magnetic attraction Filtering the mixture Distilling a liquid solution evaporation Compound Mixture properties

13 Measuring Matter Weight ___________ is a measure of the force of gravity on an object. - on Earth, all objects are attracted towards the center of the earth based on the force of the earth’s gravity. On the moon, you would weigh one sixth of your total weight on earth. ____________ is the measurement of the amount of matter in an object -the mass of your body does not change on the moon * Weight can change with location. Mass does not change with location even when the force of gravity on the object changes. Mass

14 Units of Mass, Volume, and Density
______________________is the measurement system used by scientists to measure properties of matter. ____________is the amount of space that matter occupies. Formula: length x width x height ____________relates to the mass of a material in a given volume. Formula: mass ÷ volume International System of Units (SI) Volume Density

15 Sinking or Floating Objects with densities ________than water will sink. Objects with densities _________than that of water will float. Density is a ___________property of a substance. Brainpower – why does the oil in a bottle of salad dressing rise to the top of the bottle? greater less physical

16 Section 2 Assessment Question 1a and 1b Question 2a, 2b, and 2c
Question 4 Calculating Density Practice

17 Changes in Matter _______________ change is any change that alters the form or appearance of matter but does not make any substance in the matter into a different substance. Example: sand that is used in an art sculpture is still sand just in a different form When matter changes state from a solid, liquid, or gas – a _____________change has occurred. Physical physical

18 Examples of Physical Changes
_____________ ____________ Dissolving Bending Crushing Breaking Chopping Filtration Distillation

19 Chemical Change _____________ change is a change in matter that produces one or more new substances - a substance is transformed into a different substance. - the new substances have ___________ that are different from the original substances - Examples of chemical changes: burning natural gas, rust, tarnish, and breaking down water into its elements Chemical properties

20 Examples of Chemical Change
Description Example Combustion A rapid reaction between fuel and oxygen that results in fire Gas, oil, or coal burning in a furnace Electrolysis Use of electricity to break a compound into its elements or simpler compounds Breaking down water into oxygen and hydrogen Oxidation Slow combination of a substance with oxygen Rusting of an iron fence Tarnishing Slow combination of a bright metal with sulfur or another substance, producing a dark coating on the metal Tarnishing of brass

21 Law of Conservation of Mass
__________________in the 1770’s made accurate measurements of mass both before and after a chemical change. His data showed that mass was neither lost nor gained as a result of the change _____________________ - matter is not created or destroyed Since mass measures the amount of _________, this law is sometimes referred to as the __________________________ Antoine Lavoisier Law of Conservation of Mass matter Law of Conservation of Matter

22 Conserving Matter

23 Chemical Reaction in Methane
No mass is lost during the combustion of methane gas During a chemical change, ________ are not lost or gained – they are simply rearranged. For every molecule of ________ that burns, two molecules of _________ are used. The ______are rearranged in the reaction, but they do not disappear. atoms methane oxygen atoms

24 Thermal Energy ____________is the ability to do work or cause change
Chemical or physical changes in _________ includes a change in __________. ______________ is a measure of the average energy or random motion of particles of matter ______________ is the total energy of the particles in an object __________________is related to the amount of __________________ an object has. ___________________ always flows from warmer matter to cooler matter matter Energy Temperature Thermal Energy Temperature Thermal Energy Thermal Energy

25 Thermal Energy and Changes in Matter
When matter changes thermal energy is either __________ or ____________ ______________ change is a change in which energy is taken in _______________ change occurs when energy is released or given off ___________ is a chemical change that releases energy in the form of heat and light absorbed released Endothermic Exothermic Combustion

26 Forms of Energy Energy comes in many forms: Kinetic Potential Chemical
Electromagnetic Electrical Thermal

27 Kinetic Energy Kinetic Energy – the energy of matter in _________.
The smallest particles of matter have __________ energy because they are in constant, random motion. The kinetic energy of particles contributes to the __________ energy of a substance A rolling ball has kinetic energy because the particles that make up the ball are in motion. motion kinetic thermal

28 Potential Energy Potential energy is energy that is ________ as a result of the objects _________. When a diver climbs to the top of a diving board his/her potential energy ___________. When you stretch a rubber band, you are giving the rubber band ____________ energy because it has the ability to snap back and do work. Other types of potential energy: a book on top of your desk – it has the potential to fall off stored position increases potential

29 Chemical Energy Chemical energy is the internal energy stored in the _______________ between atoms. Chemical energy is also a form of _______ energy because the energy is stored. When a chemical change occurs, the chemical bonds are _______ and new bonds are formed. Chemical bonds potential broken

30 Electromagnetic energy
Electromagnetic energy is a form of energy that travels through _________ as ________. Examples: radio waves, infrared rays, the waves that heat food in the microwave, ultraviolet waves, and x-rays. _________ is an example of electromagnetic energy. __________ changes give off electromagnetic energy such as light from a wood fire. waves space Visible light Chemical

31 Electrical Energy Electrical Energy is the energy of ________charged particles moving from one place to another. ___________ move from one atom to another in many ____________ reactions. _____________ are two metal strips that are used to conduct electrical energy when connected to an electrical energy source such as a ____________. electrically electrons Chemical Electrodes battery

32 Transformed Energy Burning of fuel is a ________ change that transforms ____________ energy and releases it as ____________ energy and ____________ energy. When you exercise, ___________ energy from food is transformed into __________ energy of your moving muscles. Photosynthesis – plants transform ____________ energy into _________ energy as they make molecules of sugar. chemical Chemical thermal electromagnetic chemical kinetic electromagnetic chemical

33 Section 2-4 Assessment 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 2c

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