Presentation on theme: "Weakness of Structural linguistics Functionalism"— Presentation transcript:
1 Weakness of Structural linguistics Functionalism Lecture # 18
2 Review of lecture 17Structuralism - new movement – reaction against the traditional and universal grammar. It studies a language employing certain procedures which linguists have formulated, tested, and improved.
3 Review of lecture 17A structuralist treats grammar as a devise by which words are combined into larger units of discourse.Basic assumptions -Priority of the spokenlanguage, Objective treatment of all languages,Importance of synchronic description,Linguistics – descriptive, not prescriptivescience, System structure, Language & Utterance
4 Review of lecture 17 Strengths Chomsky says, “ The major contributions of structural linguistics is methodological rather than substative.It made study of language scientific, precise, verifiable and objective
5 Review of lecture 17It examines all languages in terms of their phonological and grammatical systems.It recognizes uniqueness of each language
6 Weakness of structural grammar Chomsky criticized – corpus bound, neglect of meaningStructurism ignores explanatory adequacy, meaning, linguistic universals, native speaker’s intuition and his competence of generating infinite number of sentences from a finite set of items
7 Weakness of structural grammar Structuralism analysis the date of a given corpus by means of inductive methods, and formulates a grammar based on discovery procedures of data.To structuralists, grammar is a catalogue of elements classified of with restrictions enumerated, and relations made physically manifested.
8 Weakness of structural grammar Total corpus cannot be captured or verified.Language is not merely an inventory, or catalogue of items, as structuralists imagined.Structuralists failed to capture all ambiguities and relations.It does not include the idea of creativity
9 Weakness of structural grammar It does not account for the degree of grammaticality and acceptability, nor does it stop the generation of ungrammatical sentences.Grammar is not predictive and explicit; it does not explain inter-relatedness of sentences.Grammar should not merely be a record of data
10 Weakness of structural grammar It should establish the general and innate properties of the language based on intrinsic properties of human mind.Linguistics is a sub-class of cognitive psychology.Language is both nature and nurture.Grammar should also specify, what to say; when and why
11 Weakness of structural grammar Structural grammar does not fulfill all these goals. It is not a whole but a part of the whole – an inventory of units such as phonemes, morphemes, words , lexical categories, phrases.Descriptive grammar is just one aspect of generative grammar.
12 Weakness of structural grammar Structuralism fails to speak anything about nature of language and fails to establish a relationship between sound and meaning.A grammar should also account for deep structures.It should give a factually accurate formulation of rules.
13 Weakness of structural grammar It should give such rules that generate deep and surface structures.It should give such rules that discover the iner-relatedness of sentences.It should give such rules that give phonetic transcriptions of surface rules and semantic interpretation of deep structures.
14 Weakness of structural grammar The units logically prior to the grammar; the grammar is logically prior to the units.It concentrates on structuralism and ignores the native speaker’s competence.It also ignores the psychological and sociological side of language.
15 Weakness of structural grammar It is interested in data more for the sake of data than in capturing the creative power that generates an infinite set of sentences.It does not speak of the internalization – the emergence of Transformational Generative Grammar
16 Functionalism A particular movement within Structuralism Phonological, grammatical and semantic structure of languages determined by the functions they have to perform in societies in which they operateThe representatives of functionalism are the members of Prague school
17 FunctionalismIt had its origin in the Prague linguistic circle founded in 1926.It was particularly influential in the European linguistics in the period preceding the Second World War.The Prague school rejected Saussurean distinction of synchronic and diachronic linguistics & homogeneity of language system
18 Functionalism The Prague school first made its impact in phonology. One of the members – TrubetzkoyHe drew a line between phonetics and phonology.The distinctive function of the phonetic features is only one kind of linguistically relevant function
19 FunctionalismOthers are demarcative functions and expressive functions.Most of the supra-segmental features are stress, tone, length, etc.They have a demarcative rather than a distinctive function in particular language function
20 Functionalism They are called boundary signals. They do not serve to distinguish one form from another on the substitutional (paradigmatic) dimensions of contrast; they reinforce the phonological cohesion of forms.They help to identify them syntagmatically as units by marking the boundary between one form and another in the chain of speech
21 FunctionalismIn English there no more than one primary stress associated with each word form.The position of primary stress on English word –forms is partly predictable and does not identify boundary as it does in languages with fixed stress like Polish, Czech or Finnish.Word stress does have an important demarcative function in English
22 FunctionalismThe expressive function of the phonological feature is meant by its indication of the speaker’s feelings or attitude.For example, word stress is not distinctive in French; and it does not play a demarcative role – the way it plays in many languagesAn emphatic pronunciation of the beginning of the word shows expressive function
23 FunctionalismEvery language puts a rich set of phonological resources at the disposal of its users for the expression of feelings.Functionalists emphasize on the multi-functionality of language and the importance of its expressive and social functions along with its descriptive function
24 FunctionalismAn important contribution of Prague school is functional sentence perspective e.g. FSPExample: 1. This morning he got up late.2. He got up late this morning.1and 2 are conditionally equivalent and same meaning.The context of 1 & 2 differ systematically
25 FunctionalismIn some languages, the syntactic structures of utterances or of sentences is determined by the communicative setting of the utterance.This is called functional sentence perspective by Prague school linguistics.Functionalism in linguistics emphasizes the instrumental character of language.
26 FunctionalismFunctionalists maintain that the structure of natural languages is determined by the several independent semiotic functions – expressive, descriptive and social.Furthermore, it says that the structure of language systems is partly though not wholly, determined by functions.
27 SummaryThe Prague school rejected Saussurean distinction of synchronic and diachronic linguistics & homogeneity of language system
28 SummaryFunctionalists emphasize on the multi-functionality of language and the importance of its expressive, social, and cognitive functions along with its descriptive functionFunctionalism in linguistics emphasize the instrumental character of language
29 SummaryFunctionalism in linguistics emphasizes the instrumental character of languageFunctionalists maintain that the structure of natural languages is determined by the several independent semiotic functions – expressive, descriptive and social.Furthermore, it says that the structure of language systems is partly though not wholly, determined by functions.