Victorian Era design elaborate typography, decorative borders, framed image and symmetrical layout nostalgia for objects of the past romantic motifs The illustration style is very typical; romantic, nostalgic and sentimental
Art Nouveau Poster by Alfonse Mucha Date: (unknown)
Roots in 19 th century – abstraction and geometry
Pablo Picasso made his first cubist paintings based on Cézanne's idea that all depiction of nature can be reduced to three solids: cube, sphere and cone Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) Left: Head of a Woman, (oil on canvas, 1907) Right: Dan Mask
Futurism – Italy 1909 - 1916 Futurism became a major influence on other art movements. Its violent, revolutionary techniques were adopted by the DAdaist, Constructionist and De Stilj Futurism - enthusiasm for war, machine age, speed and modern life. Nonlinear compositions. Capture new urban experience. Complete break from the past
Dada – Switzerland 1916 - 1922 Dada used shock, protest and nonsense to mock and defame a society gone insane.
Suprematism Movement – Russian 1915 - 1916 Suprematism (Russian: Супрематизм): was an art movement focused on fundamental geometric forms (in particular the square and circle) which formed in Russia in 1915-1916.Russiangeometric Text source: Wikipedia Suprematism (Supremus No. 58), KrasnodarKrasnodar Museum of Art (Malevich, 1916)Malevich
Malevich: The Black Square, 1913 "The square = feeling, the white field = the void beyond this feeling."
Constructivism – Russian 1915 -1930’s Russian Constructivists absorbed Cubism and Futurism to create a new movement which unifies communist ideology with visual form. Rejected the idea of autonomous art in favour of art as a practice directed towards social purposes.
Constructivist approach: photomontage, elemental geometric abstraction, titled axis, dominant color scheme is red and black.
El Lissitzky (Russia, Constructivism): "Beat the Whites with the Red Wedge" (1919)
spatial compositions, contrasts between elements, relationship of forms to negative space, asymmetrical balance. sans-serif type with bold rules with read and black ink.
El Lissitzky (Russia, Constructivism): Catalog cover
Constructivism: - originated in Russia, 1921 - no more “Art for Art’s sake” (l’art pour l’art) - industrial design, graphic design, poster, books - many links to De Stijl (NL), Bauhaus (Germany), Dada (Switzerland / Germany) - geometric shapes, mathematic proportions - functional, no ornaments
De Stijl Movement – Holland 1917 to 1931 An art movement advocating pure abstraction and simplicity — form reduced to the rectangle and other geometric shapes, and color to the primary colors, along with black and white. ]art movement abstractionformrectangle geometricshapescolor primary colors ] Text source: Wikipedia Composition with Yellow, Blue, and Red, 1937–42, Piet Mondrian.Piet Mondrian
De Stijl Movement Red and Blue ChairRed and Blue Chair designed by Gerrit RietveldGerrit Rietveld in 1917.
New Typography New typography is defined as a rejection of classical rules of typography and symmetry. Lissitzky traced the roots of New Typography back to Marinetti’s futurist poetry, in an essay he wrote in 1927.
New Typography Lissitzky is given credit as being the first to absorb the lessons of the modern art movements and successfully apply them to communications. Moholy-Nagy adapted Lissitzky’s basic ideas and applied them to the Bauhaus course.
Constructivist and Bauhaus close collaboration-note titled axis, sans-serif type, bold rules and use of black and red.-love of geometry in design Constructivist and Bau Haus close collaboration-note titled axis, sans-serif type, bold rules and use of black and red.-love of geometry in design
Jan Tschichold 1902-1979 A Swiss national, he was a typographer, book designer, teacher and writer.typographer Tschichold became a leading advocate of Modernist design: through his most noted work Die neue Typographie (The New Typography) This book was a manifesto of modern design, in which he condemned all fonts but sans-serif (called 'Grotesk' in Germany).sans-serif He also favoured non-centered design (e.g., on title pages), and codified many other Modernist design rules. Text and image source: Wikipedia
Advocated the use of sans-serfi type, asymmetrical layout and the grid as an underlying structure. The New Typography - Germany 1928