Presentation on theme: "Geography Themes and Essential Elements"— Presentation transcript:
1 Geography Themes and Essential Elements A Geographer's WorldCurriculum Outcomes 1.1 & 1.2Geography Themes and Essential Elements
2 Geography is “a science that deals with the description, distribution, and interaction of the diverse physical, biological, and cultural features of the earth's surface. Simply put, we will learn about the features of the earth and how living things interact and change the earth.
6 LocationEvery point on Earth has a location, a description of where it is. This location can be expressed in many ways. Sometimes a site's location is expressed in specific, or absolute, terms, such as an address. For example, the White House is located at 38 53' 51" N 77 02' 11“W. A specific description like this one is called an absolute location. Other times, the site's location is expressed in general terms. For example, The white house is 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue in the city of Washington, D.C. This general description of where a place lies is called its relative location.
7 PlaceAnother theme, Place, is closely related to Location. However, Place does not refer simply to where an area is. It refers to the area's landscape, the features that define the area and make it different from other places. Such features could include land, climate, and people. Together, they give a place its own character.
8 Human-Environment Interaction In addition to looking at the features of places, geographers examine how those features interact. In particular, they want to understand how people interact with their environments-how people and their physical environment effect each other. An area's environment includes its land, water, climate, plants, and animals. People interact with their environment every day in all sorts of ways. They clear forests to plant crops, level fields to build cities, and dam rivers to prevent floods. At the same time, physical environments affect how people live here. People in cold areas, for example, build houses with thick walls and wear heavy clothing to keep warm. People who live near oceans look for ways to protect themselves from storms.
9 MovementPeople are constantly moving. They move within cities, between cities, and between countries. Geographers want to know why and how people move. For example, they ask if people are moving to find work or to live in a more pleasant area. Geographers also study the roads and routes that make movement so common.
10 RegionsYou have already learned how geographers divide the world into many regions to help the study of geography. Creating regions also makes it easier to compare places. Comparisons help geographers learn why each place has developed the way it has.
11 Scholars have divided the study of geography into six parts called “The Six Essential Elements of Geography.” A geographically informed person knows:
12 The Six Essential Elements The World in Spatial TermsPlaces and RegionsPhysical SystemsHuman SystemsEnvironment and SocietyThe Uses of Geography
13 The World In Spatial Terms How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspectiveHow to use mental maps to organize information about people, places, and environments in a spatial contextHow to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface
14 Places and Regions The physical and human characteristics of places How people create regions to interpret Earth's complexityHow culture and experience influence people's perceptions of places and regions
15 The Uses of Geography How to apply geography to interpret the past How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future
16 Environment and Society How human actions modify the physical environmentHow physical systems affect human systemsChanges that occur in the meaning, use, distribution, and importance of resources
17 Human SystemsThe characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations on Earth's surfaceThe characteristics, distribution, and complexity of Earth's cultural mosaicsThe patterns and networks of economic interdependence on Earth's surfaceThe processes, patterns, and functions of human settlementHow the forces of cooperation and conflict among people influence the division and control of Earth's surface
18 Physical SystemsPhysical systems–volcanoes, floods, and hurricanes–shape the earth’s surface.The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth's surfaceThe characteristics and spatial distribution of ecosystems on Earth's surface
19 THANK YOU AND GOODBYE![ Insert your text here ]