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KOBI’s Classical Music Appreciation (version 4.3)

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1 KOBI’s Classical Music Appreciation (version 4.3)
JS Bach Handel Vivaldi Haydn Mozart Beethoven Baroque Classical Romantic Modern the Top 10 Greatest Composers of all time Chopin Strauss II Tchaikovsky Rachmaninoff KOBI’s Classical Music Appreciation (version 4.3) A concise summary of classical music covering the 4 main periods of music: Baroque, Classical, Romantic and Modern. Understand and recognize the unique characteristics of each music era and their relationship to parallel architectural and art movements. Learn about the life and music of 55 famous composers and their signature works An essential collection of over 100 classical masterpieces to listen to via YouTube hyperlinks

Use the <LEFT> and <RIGHT> keys to navigate. The <SPACE> bar or a <mouse click> anywhere other than on a hyperlink will also advance the presentation by one page. Use the <ESCAPE> key to end the show. Clicking on a hyperlink (they are underlined) will launch an orphan internet browser window with the chosen YouTube video. On occasion there will be advertisements, which you can click ‘skip’ after four seconds. You can move or resize the browser window to continue reading the slide beneath. You should preferably close the browser window before moving on to the next piece of music. You can also click anywhere outside the browser window to hide the video but you will continue to hear it. The only way to prematurely end a video playing in the background is to first click another link to bring back video window. The links to some less recognizable music are followed by a ‘#’. For those of you who prefer to progress at a faster pace, you can skip these optional links.

3 What is Music? Sound is nothing but vibrations transmitted through the air, and its pitch is determined by the frequency of these vibrations. Long ago, it was determined through trial and error that musical instruments that incremented their frequencies by a factor of x per interval resulted in the best sound. What is the difference between random noise and music? 6 semi-tones are (approximate) harmonic fractions of the base frequency. i.e. the sound nice with the first semi-tone or with each other in certain combinations. When you put together only sound from the nice semi-tones and exclude the 5 ugly semi-tones, this constitutes the mathematical patterns which our brains naturally recognize and enjoy as music. The nice semi-tones are called notes and are in position 3, 5, 6, 8, 10,12. If you include 1 and 13 (i.e. the next 1) you get 8 notes, hence the word ‘octave’. In music, frequency intervals are determined similarly. Each doubling of the frequency is called an octave and has 12 intervals or semi-tones. $100 in a bank at an interest rate of 5.95% p.a. compounds into $200 after 12 years. 1 1 1/8 1 1/4 1 1/3 1 1/2 Why not just have equal intervals between semi-tones? The compounding effect is a natural property of the vibrating strings used in instruments. Pitch doubles each time you halve a string’s length. 1 2/3 1 7/8 2

4 What is a Musical Scale? C D E F G A B C KEYBOARD
This is called the C-major scale. You may recognize it as do-re-mi-fa-so-la-ti. actually middle C has a frequency of Hz, I just used 100 Hz to keep it simple. KEYBOARD On a keyboard, the 7 nice semi-tones or notes are represented by white keys while the 5 ugly ones are wedged between the notes as smaller black keys. This is a design feature which allows one hand to just stretch across an entire octave. Only the notes have names, which are the letters A-G. C is arbitrarily chosen as position 1. C D E F G A B C Standard music notation is in the 5-stave format. It leaves no room for the black keys so they are just denoted through the adjoining white keys. The black key after C is known as C-sharp (C#). It can also be called D-flat (Db) as it is the black key before D. Besides the note C , composers can and do choose any of the other keys as position 1, but this will result in some black keys being in the ‘nice’ 1, 3, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12 positions. For example, the D-Major scale is D, E, F#, G, A, B, C#. There is a complimentary set of scales called the Minor scale using the 1, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 11 intervals. If we use A as first key, the notes of this Minor sequence all happen to be white keys. It is said that the Major scales sound ‘happy’ while the Minor scales sound ‘sad’.

Baroque is a Portuguese term that loosely translates as ‘deformed’ and the term was first applied to the overly ornate architecture of the post-Renaissance era. Baroque music too was often characterized by embellishment. Although they may not overlap exactly, the practice is to co-name the eras of various disciplines of the arts as they were all were influenced by the same social changes Handel 1759 1685 D. Scarlatti 1757 1685 Albinoni 1751 1671 J.S. Bach 1750 1685 Vivaldi 1741 1678 Corelli 1713 1653 Pachelbel 1706 1653 THE TOP TEN COMPOSERS of all time will be in blue Charpentier 1704 1643 Baroque architecture Baroque art Purcell 1695 1659 1500 1550 1600 1650 1700 1750 1800 MUSIC Renaissance Early Baroque Mid Baroque High Baroque Classical Renaissance Baroque ART

6 The Geography of Music I - the BAROQUE Period
The Baroque period began with Keyboard instruments dominating in the North and String instruments popular in the South. Brass Instruments on the other hand were favoured in the West. NORTHERN EUROPE The master organ builders such as Silbermann and Schnitger were all German. This made the Pipe Organ, and by association the Harpsichord, popular in the North. Consequently, all the famous organists like Buxtehude, Pachelbel and later JS Bach were all from Northern Europe. This map is drawn in modern terms. In actual fact, much of Germany and parts of Italy were really part of the Austria-based Habsburg empire in the 17th century. WESTERN EUROPE The Kings of England and France often had to resort to grand musical pageantry and fanfare to woo the loyalty of the masses. This resulted in horns being a major feature of the larger orchestral works of composers like Purcell and Handel. CENTRAL EUROPE No famous instrument makers, no notable composers or musicians… yet. However, as the various music styles merged, the distinction between North and South came to an end. You will see in the next section that Austria (in the middle) emerges as the music capital of the world. SOUTHERN EUROPE The master makers of string instruments such as Amati, Guarneri and Stradivari were all Italian. This resulted in the popularity of string instruments in the South, in particular the violin. This then led to famous violinists like Corelli, and later Vivaldi.

7 Middle BAROQUE Composers
Johan PACHELBEL THE STYLE OF MIDDLE BAROQUE MUSIC New instruments introduced in the Baroque era include the harpsichord, violin, cello, harp, trumpet and oboe. As instruments became more sophisticated, they underwent a status transition from a supporting to a leading role. Present day’s classical repertoire begins with the Middle Baroque period as that was when musical instruments finally evolved to a level compatible with modern times. Middle Baroque Music is a slower style that is a carryover from the choral music of the Renaissance. This style utilized multiple melodies played on sustaining instruments such as the violin and organ, as if each melody is a person singing. This is called polyphony (or counterpoint). Pachelbel’s Canon in D Major is a prime example of polyphony. Listen as the voices are layered in gradually. As classical music was in its infancy, none of the top-10 classical composers are from the mid-baroque period. (1653 – 1706) A German composer who brought organ music to new heights. He was the music teacher of the older brother of JS Bach, who then tutored his younger brother. Canon in D major CLICK THIS LINK Canon - A piece of music where one or more underlying melodies are repeated throughout (like in row, row your boat) Appending the key in which the music is written (in this case D major) is a common way of distinguishing music as they were mostly composed without names.

8 Middle BAROQUE Composers
Henry PURCELL Marc-Antoine CHARPENTIER Arcangelo CORELLI (1659 – 1695) (1643 – 1704) (1653 – 1713) The only native English composer of any international repute up until the 19th century. His works are representative of the grand brass-heavy style of English orchestral music. Charpentier studied music in Italy and brought baroque music home with him to France. He is not that well known as a composer outside of France today except perhaps for his religious choral works. A famous Italian violinist and composer of the era. He is largely responsible for modern violin technique and the Concerto Grosso. Corelli’s was Vivaldi’s teacher. Concerto Grosso in D major Abdelazer Suite Rondeau Prelude from Te Deum # a.k.a. Marche pour les Trompettes. A segment of this serves as the theme music for the Eurovision Song Contest (btw it is also a Rondeau) Concerto Grosso - a concert where a small set of instruments is contrasted against a larger group of supporting ones. Concerto - a piece of orchestral music with a dominant solo instrument standing out. Rondeau - music with a rhythmic and cyclical pattern, similar in concept to poetry.

9 The Transition to HIGH BAROQUE
As we enter the High Baroque period we see in each region of Europe the ‘passing of the torch’ to one of the 3 Great Baroque composers HIGH BAROQUE MUSIC During the High Baroque period, a faster style evolved because of the limitations of then popular plucking instruments like the harpsichord and the mandolin. These did not have the ability to sustain a note. The result was ‘pure’ instrumental music totally divorced from the concept of human voice substitution. This more advanced style of music was characterized by a fast lively rhythmic pace of short notes. There was also an abundance of embellishment (alternating quickly between a note and the one next to it repeatedly to extend its duration) NORTH SOUTH WEST MID BAROQUE PACHELBEL CORELLI PURCELL HIGH BAROQUE JS BACH VIVALDI HANDEL

10 High BAROQUE Composers
not to be confused with his father Alessandro Scarlatti Domenico SCARLATTI (1685 – 1757) A musician from Naples who composed mostly for the Spanish and Portuguese royal courts. He is known best today for his 555 keyboard sonatas, many of which contain Hispanic folk tunes. HARPSICHORD A major instrument of the Baroque period was the harpsichord, basically a harp laid on its side and plucked mechanically via a keyboard. Good: Unlike wind and to an extent string musical instruments, it allowed you to play multiple notes at the same time. Bad: Unlike some other musical instruments, the harpsichord is unable to sustain a note and every note on the harpsichord has the same duration and a similar volume. Sonata in D Minor K.1 # He wrote many sonatas in the same key, so they are further distinguished by their Kirkpatrick Catalogue number. Sonata - a musical piece for one instrument alone, usually in 3 movements. Each movement is further broken down into the exposition, development and recapitulation.

11 Johann Sebastian BACH Considered by most to be the greatest composer of the Baroque Period now, but in his day he was more famous as an organist. A pious Lutheran, Bach worked as musical director in various German churches throughout his life, never seeking to promote himself. JS Bach was a master of polyphony and is renowned for his numerous masterpieces written for organ and harpsichord. Originally part of Bach’s Orchestral Suite No.3. It was rearranged by the famous violinist Wilhelmj 150 years later such that the whole piece could be played on only 1 of the violin’s 4 strings. Cantata - a vocal composition accompanied by musical instruments (1685 – 1750) Cantata 147 Harpsichord Concerto No.5 Prelude No.6 in D minor Minuet & Badinerie Air on a G-String Brandenburg Concerto No.3 Toccata and Fugue in D minor Prelude - a short introductory piece of music Toccata - Italian for touch, indicating the piece of music with quick fingering Fugue - music where various melodies are replayed in different pitches, chasing each other. Less rigid in structure than a canon. Both French Dances. A Minuet is a dance with minute (i.e. small) steps. A Badinerie is a type of dance that is brief and lively. The Badinerie is the more famous part and starts at time index 1:56. A simple tune once attributed to Bach, but now believed to be a work of Petzold which Bach copied into his notebook Minuet in G Major

12 Antonio Lucio VIVALDI An Italian composer and a violin virtuoso. Vivaldi is best known for his concertos for string instruments. He was also an ordained priest, earning him the nickname, the Red Priest (red refers to his hair). He worked for 3 decades as a music director in a Venetian orphanage that was also home to an orchestra and choir. Later in life he began travelling to various parts of the Habsburg Empire and composed works for nobility, including Emperor Charles VI. (1678 – 1741) These two are concertos for plucking instruments. The lute concerto is usually performed on the guitar nowadays since nobody really plays the lute anymore. Concerto for Mandolin in C Major Concerto for Lute in D Major, 2nd movement The Four Seasons are a set of 4 violin concertos, each portraying seasonal scenes such hunting, singing birds, storms etc. They are without doubt Vivaldi’s most famous works. Movement - longer pieces of music are usually broken down into movements, like the chapters in a book. ‘mvt’ is the abbreviation The Four Seasons These are the best early examples of programme music – music that tells a story without the use of lyrics. You can check what the storyline is for each season by looking at the accompanying sonnets see here # Concerto No.1 Spring Concerto No.2 Summer Concerto No.3 Autumn Concerto No.4 Winter Gloria # Gloria is Vivaldi’s most famous oratorios - sort of a combination of opera and concert.

13 George Frideric HANDEL
A German composer who composed in the English Baroque style. He lived in England for 50 years, totally eclipsing all local English composers, even for a century after his death. He is known for the majestic grandeur of his compositions, no doubt made possible by the generosity of the British monarchs and the prosperity of the British Empire. You may notice some similarity to Purcell’s style but they never met. Purcell died before Handel ever set foot in England. Handel simply adopted the English style after he arrived in London. (1685 – 1759) Part of Handel’s Solomon oratorio. Messiah was another of his famous oratorios The Water Music Suites were composed when King George I decided to have a concert on the River Thames. The king enjoyed the music as he was leading a procession of hundreds of boats upriver while an orchestra performed from a barge. Arrival of the Queen of Sheba Messiah – Hallelujah Chorus Concerto Grosso in A minor Zadok the Priest Anthem Water Music Suite No.1 - Allegro Water Music Suite No. 2 Fireworks Music - La Rejouissance Fireworks Music was commissioned by King George II to mark the end of the War of Austrian Succession. It was played in conjunction with a massive fireworks display, hence its name. A choral anthem that has been sung at the coronation of every British monarch since Handel wrote it.

14 Other High BAROQUE Composers
Georg TELEMANN Tomaso ALBINONI (1681 – 1767) (1671 – 1751) Although every bit as famous as fellow Germans Bach and Handel in his day, the self-taught Telemann was largely forgotten by the 19th century because it was felt he was not innovative and favoured quantity (over 3000 works) over quality. A great Italian opera composer of his time. Albinoni’s name is particularly associated with the oboe for which he wrote several concertos. Much of his work was lost in the WWII fire bombing of Dresden. Réjouissance, Suite in A Minor for Flute # Oboe Concerto in D Minor, 2nd mvt Suite - a single or set of shorter musical pieces, often extracted from a larger work like an opera or ballet.

15 the ROCOCO movement Rococo art The Rococo style was an sub-style of the late Baroque period. It music is a lighter, more frivolous style that rebelled against the rigid formality of Baroque music. Unlike its better known art, architecture and furniture cousins, rococo music was a smaller phenomenon and is often left out of the musical era timeline. In France it was called the Elegant style (in French, Style Galante) while in Germany it was called the Sensitive style (in German Empfindsamer Stil) Rococo architecture 1714 CPE Bach 1788 1683 Rameau 1764 1500 1550 1600 1650 1700 1750 1800 MUSIC Renaissance Early Baroque Mid Baroque High Baroque Classical Renaissance Baroque ART Rococo

16 Carl Phillipe Emanuel BACH
The ROCOCO Composers Jean-Philippe RAMEAU Carl Phillipe Emanuel BACH THE ISSAC NEWTON OF MUSIC (1683 – 1764) (1714 – 1788) A French composer during the reigns of Louis XIV and XV when Rococo was predominant. He was known as a master of harpsichord music in his younger days but turned to composing opera as he got older. Rameau also published works on musical theory. CPE Bach was the harpsichordist of Frederick the Great and a leading composer of the sensitive style. Although his proto-romantic compositions were admired in his lifetime, they are less popular today, a victim of his father JS Bach’s reputation. Concerto for Cello in A Minor Suite in G minor # When you hear it you will immediately know it is written for the harpsichord even though it is played on the piano in this link. Rameau‘s ‘Treatise On Harmony’ is a foundation of classical music instruction. In this sense he is better recognized for his contribution to music theory than his actual music.

17 the CLASSICAL PERIOD The Classical Period is a sister of the Neo-Classical art and architectural periods. The concept of Classical is based on the ancient Greek and Roman philosophy of elegance through symmetry and simplicity. The Classical Period also marks the rise of Vienna, centred around the First Viennese School, as the music capital of Europe. Brahms 1897 1833 Paganini 1840 1782 Neo-Classical art Clementi 1832 1752 Schubert 1828 1797 Neo-Classical architecture 1827 1770 Beethoven Haydn 1809 1732 Boccherini 1805 1743 Mozart 1791 1756 In art, the Classicism and Romantic periods are parallel, but in music they come one after the other Gluck 1787 1714 1600 1650 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1820 MUSIC Early Baroque Mid Baroque High Baroque Classical Romantic Baroque Neo-Classicism Impressionism ART Rococo Romanticism

18 Early CLASSICAL PERIOD Composers
Christoph GLUCK Music from all 4 music eras are all confusingly called Classical Music. So for music of this period, we have to use the clumsy term classical period / era music. Luigi BOCCHERINI (1714 – 1787) (1743 – 1805) Gluck was a Bavarian composer who focused on opera. He wrote about 40 of them. He is recognized for modernizing opera by doing away with performer improvisations and recitatives. An Italian cellist virtuoso and composer known for his chamber music. He was so good with the cello he could instantly transpose and play parts meant for the violin on the cello. Dance of the Blessed Spirits Minuet in E Major (String Quintet) Recitative - the monotonous half talk-half sing style so common in Andrew Lloyd Weber musicals. A solemn piece of music popular at wedding receptions. The polyphony is very apparent in this video I chose.

Muzio CLEMENTI FATHER OF THE PIANOFORTE Forte has since been dropped from the name. Forte means loud. (1752 – 1832) PIANO A major change of the Classical period was the replacement of the harpsichord with the piano. It was at first called the Pianoforte and was instrumental in bringing forth the classical period. As strings were hammered instead of plucked, it had the range versatility of the harpsichord but none of its mechanical limitations. With the piano, musicians could play loud or soft notes depending on how gently they hit the keys. They could play long or short notes depending on how long the keys were depressed. An Italian musician who moved to London. While he did not invent the piano, he built and promoted them all over Europe. Many of his compositions are popular with today’s piano students. Sonatina No. 36 Played by a 4 year old prodigy. Note how Mozart-like it is, perhaps he should have moved to Vienna instead of London, but then he might have also died a young pauper instead of living to 80. Sonatina - a mini Sonata

While the harpsichord chained Baroque music to a consistent pace, the piano which now supplanted it liberated composers and allowed them to weave temperament into their music. Music in the Classical era becomes less predictable. Music could change pace and volume and became decidedly less ornate. It also gained depth with the introduction of the symphony. Emphasis also shifted from the multiple melodies of polyphony to the single melody of homophony. HOMOPHONY THROUGH CHORDS With the switch to homophony, composers begin to enrich their melodies with harmony, through the use of chords. A chord is when you play 3 or even 4 harmonious notes simultaneously rather than one after another. You can only play one note at a time on a wind instrument and a maximum of two notes on a bow-string instrument like the violin. That is why orchestras have second-violins, to ‘complete violin chords’. The chord concept was not popular during the Baroque period as only a few instruments like the organ could play true chords. But as the piano gained popularity in the classical era, so did the use of chords. This is the most common chord, the C-Major triad. Note how the frequency values of C, E and G just happen to be approximately 100, 125 and 150.

21 Franz Joseph HAYDN Haydn spent his formative years quietly as musical director of the Esterhazy Estate and only achieved fame after he left the estate at the aged of 59. Although a prominent Austrian composer of his day, in modern times his music has been overshadowed by his student Beethoven and his contemporary Mozart. ‘Papa’ Haydn is better remembered for launching the classical period by popularizing the Symphony (he wrote 104) and Chamber Music formats such as the Piano Trio and String Quartet. (1732 – 1809) Developed so that people like kings could listen to more than one instrument at a time without having to go to a special performance venue. Piano + violin + cello 2 violins + viola + cello FATHER OF THE SYMPHONY This is universally acknowledged as Haydn’s most famous music. However, there are claims that it was actually written by an admirer named Hoffstetter. Bernstein conducts this without using his hands! THE FIRST VIENNESE SCHOOL Haydn, together with Mozart and Beethoven are often referred to as the First Viennese School of Music. Though they did not collaborate in the true sense of the word, they did collectively usher in the Classical era with their music innovations. Symphony No.88, 4th mvt Trumpet Concerto, 3rd mvt Serenade for Strings Kaiser Quartet 2nd mvt This is a somewhat unique composition as works highlighting a brass instrument are not that common. You might recognize the beginning of this as the German national anthem, Deutschland Uber Alles.

In the Classical Period the Concerto expanded into the Symphony, requiring an enlarged orchestra. There were perhaps 60 musicians in a symphony orchestra in the classical era, and typically about 100 today. The Symphony orchestra has 4 main sections of instruments: string, brass, wind and percussion. Each section is further subdivided into 4 groups by instrument which together cover most of the enjoyable human hearing range. There is a ‘fifth’ section consisting of more versatile solo instruments like the piano (its output spans an amazing 7 octaves), the harp and certain one-per-orchestra instruments like the xylophone. low pitch high pitch Piano FIFTH Section harp violin STRING Section viola cello double bass trumpet BRASS Section french horn trombone tuba flute WOODWIND Section oboe clarinet bassoon PERCUSSION Section kettle drum bass drum tenor drum snare drum Drums, except for the kettle drums, have no pitch, only rhythm.

23 Wolfgang Amadeus MOZART
A prodigy Austrian pianist-violinist who starting performing at age 6, Mozart would compose entire symphonies in his head instead of developing them on paper. He was a prolific composer, with over 600 works in all, many of them in his signature light and playful style. He tried to make a living as a free musician instead of seeking musical patronage but unfortunately the concept of the young independent musician had yet to come of age. He died a pauper at the early age of 35. Mozart’s popularity has been maintained through the generations and he probably has the largest number of instantly recognizable passages of music today, including ‘twinkle, twinkle little star’. (1756 – 1791) Requiem: music associated with funerals and mourning Piano Solos and Concertos Symphonies and Operas Piano Sonata no.16 in C major Rondo Alla Turca from Sonata No.11 Piano Concerto No. 20, 2nd mvt Piano Concerto No. 21, 2nd mvt Eine Kleine Nachtmusik st movement nd movement Symphony No.40, 1st mvt Requiem, 1st mvt Magic Flute, Queen of the Night Aria Marriage of Figaro Overture Overture: the opening sequence of an opera or musical play, serving as a summary of the music to follow Literally translates as "a little night music“ but means a short serenade. It was meant as a chamber string quintet but is now often performed by orchestras

24 Ludwig van BEETHOVEN Beethoven was the most influential composer of the later Classical era. A student of Haydn, he was a popular performing pianist early in his career. Unlike Mozart, he only started performing at the age of 9. When Beethoven was approaching his 30s he began losing his hearing but his genius allowed him to hear music through his eyes. He was completely deaf by the time he composed the ninth symphony. Because of his dramatic passionate style, he is sometimes thought of as a bridge between the Classical and Romantic periods. Besides his symphonies, Beethoven is best know for his piano pieces, especially his sonatas. (1770 – 1827) To Beethoven, this was simply Sonata No.14. The name Moonlight was only added by music publishers years after Beethoven died. Although the 1st movement is the popular one, it is the 3rd that is the work of genius. The 5th is Beethoven’s most iconic work Orchestral works Minuet in G Symphony No.5, 1st mvt Symphony No.9, 4th mvt Piano Solos Moonlight Sonata, 1st mvt Moonlight Sonata, 3rd mvt Für Elise Pathetique Sonata, 2nd mvt Your typical grade 2 examination piece This was an unusual symphony as it had a choral component. Are you familiar with the hymn ‘joyful joyful we adore thee’ ?

25 Other Notable CLASSICAL PERIOD Composers
Franz SCHUBERT Niccolo PAGANINI Johannes BRAHMS (1797 – 1828) (1782 – 1840) (1833 – 1897) An Austrian composer who spent most of his short life in bohemian semi-poverty. The genius of his works was only recognized and promoted by later composers. Probably the greatest violinist who ever lived. He introduced new techniques that dramatically increased what a violin could technically do. It is speculated that he had a genetic abnormality which gave his hands the flexibility of a contortionist. Although he clearly lived in the Romantic era, Brahms chose to compose in the classical style throughout his life. He was also a virtuoso pianist. Hungarian Dance No.5 Wiegenlied Ave Maria Impromptu in G Flat Major Caprice No. 24 in A minor You might recognize this as the Lullaby Vanessa Mae’s modern rearrangement #

Romanticism is the love child of the French and Industrial Revolutions. In tune with the times, musicians were free to fully express themselves through their music, which they did. J. Strauss II 1899 1825 1893 1840 Tchaikovsky Liszt 1886 1811 Romantic art Wagner 1883 1813 Empire-style architecture Schumann 1856 1813 1849 1810 Chopin J. Strauss I 1849 1804 Mendelssohn 1847 1809 Rossini 1868 1792 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 1820 1880 MUSIC Baroque Classical Romantic Modern Baroque Romanticism Impressionism Avant Garde ART

Google the word Lisztomania Franz LISZT THE STYLE OF ROMANTIC MUSIC Above all, Romantic music placed a strong importance on expressing raw emotion and energy. Music was also increasingly used to portray locations, events and even mythological or fictional characters. The symmetry and elegance of the classical period was abandoned. Composers no longer stuck to the formats of old like the concertos and sonatas. In this era we see the birth of new formats like rhapsodies, symphonic poems, fantasies and etudes. There are also new dances like ballet and the waltz. Romantic music continued to move further away from the steady predictable music of the Baroque. This was done through the use of bold dramatic contrasts in pitch (hands jumping all over the keyboard), tempo (pace alternating between fast and slow) and dynamics (volume shifting between loud and soft). Many pieces became technically demanding, as many composers like Liszt were virtuosos and wrote performance music for themselves. (1811 – 1886) The Elvis Presley of his time and possibly the greatest pianist who ever lived. He easily improvised the works of earlier composers in his performances. It was said that this Hungarian virtuoso was able to play the piano as if he had 3 hands. Liszt is also the inventor of the symphonic poem format. Hungarian Rhapsody No.2 Liebestraum There is an orchestral version of this beautiful piece that is often bastardized as circus music, perhaps because it is Hungarian.

28 Frederic Francois CHOPIN
An extremely talented Polish composer who moved to Paris in his youth to further his career. Through most of his adult life Chopin suffered from poor health, and died at the age of 39. Chopin (pronounced Show-parn) was a new type of musician. He preferred not to perform too much in public and did not seek sponsorship. Instead, he made a living by publishing his music. Thus he wrote mostly solo piano pieces which are practiced by practically all piano students today. His works are known for their technical difficulty. (1810 – 1849) The sound quality of this isn’t quite as good but you can see how difficult it is live performance Impromptu - a whimsical piece of music Etude – a difficult short piece of music, meant for the practice of skill Actually it lasts 2 minutes although it is possible play it at double speed. Etude in C minor “Revolutionary” Etude in E Major “Tristesse” Fantasy Impromptu The Minute Waltz Waltz in C sharp minor THE ROMANTIC MUSICIAN Beyond being an art form, music is now a hobby. Musicians had a new audience in the emerging middle class. Composers no longer required rich employers or sponsors. They could make a living by performing regularly, giving lessons, selling sheet music or even by critiquing other’s music. Nocturne - Same idea as Nachtmusik, but less playful. Nocturne in E flat major Polonaise in A major “Military” Polonaise - a dance from Poland.

29 ROMANTIC Composers Felix MENDELSSOHN Robert SCHUMANN Italian Symphony
The wedding march is taken from music he wrote for A Midsummer’s Night Dream. (1809 – 1847) (1810 – 1856) A Jewish composer. His popularity was affected by anti-Semitism after his early death, especially in his homeland Germany, but he is now recognized world-wide for his musical genius. Schumann’s plans to be a great pianist were derailed by a hand injury, limiting him to composing and writing critiques. He also suffered from lifelong psychiatric disorders which hampered his composing but he still managed to produce many beautiful works of music. Italian Symphony 1st movement 4th movement Hebrides Overture Piano Concerto in A Minor # Traumerei Kinderszenen Schumann’s most iconic piece. Although a very romantic (with small r) piece, the meaning of ‘traumerei kinderszenen’ is ‘scenes from childhood’. a.k.a. the Fingal’s Cave , the place in Scotland was where Mendelssohn got the inspiration to write this piece of music

30 Johann STRAUSS II The name Johann Strauss II is synonymous with the Waltz, a dance in ¾ time (i.e. a 3 step dance). He composed hundreds of them and is sometimes also called the Waltz King. Many of his grand waltzes refer to his hometown Vienna in their names. His father (of the same name, see corner) had popularized the waltz by touring around Europe with his band, the Strauss Orchestra. However, it was Johann Strauss II that managed to elevate the waltz to an empire-wide ballroom sensation after inheriting his father’s band. (1825 – 1899) a.k.a. the Kaiser Walzer. It was composed for the occasion when the Austrian Emperor visited the German Kaiser in 1889, although it is not known who the ‘emperor’ in the title refers to. Johann STRAUSS I THE WALTZ KING Emperor Waltz Tales from the Vienna Woods The Blue Danube Voices of Spring Viennese Blood The second national anthem of Austria. The Danube is a river which passes through Vienna. This waltz uniquely features a soprano, and is sometimes sung in his opera Die Fledermaus. Strauss II also released a very successful solo-piano version. piano version # (1804 – 1849) Radetzky March

31 Pyotr Ilyich TCHAIKOVSKY
The first truly internationally successful Russian composer, he made several popular concert tours of Europe and America. His wrote music without reference to his Russian heritage, which left him open to criticism from nationalistic (and less successful) peers at home. Tchaikovsky’s works are known for their sweeping melodic content, which is a reason why his music is so easily appreciated by the common man. Ballet had been recently introduced from France when he came of age and it quickly became a mainstay of Russian musical culture. Thus several of Tchaikovsky’s best known works are ballets. (1840 – 1893) Nutcracker is a ballet written for the enjoyment of children, which has made it extremely popular His best work in my opinion, I picked a performance with all 3 movements Orchestral Ballets Violin Concerto in D Major Piano Concerto No.1, 1st mvt 1812 Overture Finale Nutcracker, Waltz of Flowers Nutcracker, Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy Nutcracker, Dance of the Reed Pipes Romeo and Juliet, Fantasy Overture Swan Lake Finale Written to commemorate the defence of Moscow against Napoleon. The original rendition included cannon fire.

32 The Golden Age of OPERA Gioachino ROSSINI Richard WAGNER
Pronounced as Vag-ner The Bridal Chorus is played when the bride enters and the Wedding March (by Mendelsohn) is played when the married couple exit. (1792 – 1868) (1813 – 1883) Rossini’s fame and popularity as an opera composer exceeded all those before him. Because of his style of building a signature tune to a climax, he was nicknamed “Mr. Crescendo”. Rossini retired at the age of 38 after writing 38 operas, to pursue cooking (and eating, especially foie gras). A German opera composer who saw opera as a multi-discipline work of art and not just a form of music. Unlike his predecessors, he wrote his own lyrics, designed his own sets and even built his own opera house. The Bridal Chorus is taken from one of his operas, Lohengrin. Thieving Magpie Overture Barber of Seville, Figaro Aria William Tell Overture Finale Rule Britannia Overture # Ride of the Valkyries No, Wagner did not compose the tune. Like many other composers he merely borrowed from it. Without Rossini, the world would have no Tournedos Rossini or Scrambled Eggs Rossini either Check out the original An extract of this has become the Lone Ranger theme because its time signature is similar to a galloping horse Opera Version #

33 The 4 Kings of the Love Tragedy
The most popular operas performed today are the romance tragedies from the Late Romantic Era Giacomo PUCCINI Leo DELIBES Georges BIZET Giuseppe VERDI (1858 – 1924) (1836 – 1891) (1838 – 1875) (1813 – 1901) The ‘S’ in Delibes is silent The ‘T’ in Bizet is silent MADAME BUTTERFLY The tragic love story of Cio-Cio San set in the early 1900s. Her husband, a U.S. Navy officer runs off shortly after they wed, intending never to return. But he does when he discovers she bore him a son…. LAKME The tragic love story of lakme (french misspelling of lakshmi) set in Brithish India in the late 1800s. She falls for a British officer whom her father stabs…. CARMEN The tragic love story of Don Jose, who falls in love with a gypsy Carmen and even goes to jail for her. Carmen meanwhile turns her attention to a dashing bullfighter….. RIGOLETTO The tragic love story of Gilda based on a story by Victor Hugo. She falls in love with a promiscuous Duke and to save her, her father Rigoletto takes desperate measures.… Flower Duet Intermezzo Habanera Toreador’s Song La Donna e Mobile Un Bel Di Vedremo Aria bonus: from Verdi’s il Trovatore the Anvil Chorus

With the decline of empires and the rise of democracy and meritocracy, tradition and conformity was displaced by creativity, individualism and nationalism. Composers who traditionally evolved harmoniously in a common direction now splintered into different schools. Like the musicians, music itself too began to lose its harmony as tonality was diluted by the increasing use of musical dissonance. The modern period also saw the emergence of France as the new cultural capital and immigration of music talent to the USA. Rachmaninoff 1943 1873 Ravel 1937 1875 Elgar 1934 1857 Faure 1924 1845 Saint-Saens 1921 1835 1918 1862 Debussy Massenet 1912 1842 Mahler 1911 1860 Rimsky-Korsakov 1908 1844 Grieg 1907 1843 Art Nouveau architecture Dvorak 1904 1841 1700 1750 1800 1850 1880 1900 1950 MUSIC Baroque Classical Romantic Modern ART Baroque Romanticism Impressionism Avant Garde

35 a New Alternative to Tonal Music
Futurism Art CHROMATIC MUSIC If you recall, music that is composed using only the 7 consonant (nice) keys is called Tonal, meaning it sounds nice to humans. Including the 5 dissonant (ugly) keys on the other hand results in just noise. In the tonal system, the major scales give rise to happy music and the minor scales sad music. During the Romantic period some musicians resort to using the ugly keys in order to convey emotional states other than happiness and sadness with their music. In the modern era, some composers expand on the concept and begin to experiment with ways to incorporate more non-tonal scales and chords. Such dissonant music is termed chromatic as it adds ‘colour’. Real life analogy: to add more colour to your party, you expand your guest list to include distant relatives and extended acquaintances. In the extreme, chromatic music can become atonal and will sound eerie or chaotic. This is often used to depict evil, confusion or horror in movies. It can be said that chromatic music is the music equivalent of avant garde art of the early 20th century. Avignon period Picasso

Impressionist art Symbolism art Bauhaus art Academism art ART Dissonant Tonal MUSIC Atonal Impressionist post-Romantic neo-Classical THE STYLES OF THE MODERN ERA Broadly speaking, modern era composers can be classified according to their tonality: neo-Classical - those who preferred the symmetry and elegance of the classical era and chose to adhere to the established system of musical scales. post-Romantic - those who continued with the concept of romantic music, incorporating some dissonance into the melody or harmony of their works. Impressionists - an experimental group of composers who utilised musical dissonance to structure surreal compositions. Atonal - an even more extreme group called the Second Viennese School led by Arnold Schoenberg. They eschewed tonality altogether, resulting in some very chaotic non-music.

37 the Early Neo-CLASSICAL Composers
The ‘T’ in Massenet is silent Edward ELGAR Jules MASSENET (1857 – 1934) (1842 – 1912) A self-taught composer who rose up through the ranks in class-conscious Victorian England till he was appointed Master of the King’s Music. He is said to be the first musician to record his works. A French neo-classic composer whose works were pushed aside after his death by ‘more modern’ music. He may have been forgotten had he not composed a wonderfully melancholic piece of music… Pomp and Circumstance March No.1 Meditation, from Thais A march dedicated to the coronation of King Edward VII. Strangely it is always played at American school graduation ceremonies. Perhaps you will recognize this as a iconic piece from the silent movies. The chorus Land of Hope and Glory, Mother of the Free, How shall we extol thee, who are born of thee? Wider still and wider shall thy bounds be set; God, who made thee mighty, make thee mightier yet

38 the French post-ROMANTICS
All the ‘S’ are pronounced Camille SAINT-SAENS Gabriel FAURE (1835 – 1921) (1845 – 1924) A modern renaissance man from France who besides composing also wrote about science, mathematics, history and philosophy. He and his student Faure led the emergence of Paris as the musical world’s new capital. Faure is noted for his refined and sensitive music compositions although he is less known than his student Ravel. He advanced the tonal theories of Rameau which had stood for 200 years by introducing new forms of harmony. The Aquarium The Swan Sicilienne from Pelleas et Melisande # Dolly Suite Both of these are famous segments are from his Carnival of the Animals. The Aquarium elicits a sense of mysterious wonder while the Swan gives a sense of sadness and closure. A famous one piano duet that is a favourite of twins. To the casual listener, it will seem as the pianist has more than 2 hands.

39 The Geography of Music II - the Rise of the NATIONALISM
Up to the Romantic era, everyone who was anyone in the music world (except Purcell, Chopin and Tchaikovsky) was either German, Austrian, Italian or occasionally French. If an exceptionally talented musician was unfortunate enough to be born of another nationality, he would have to immigrate to one of the big 5 countries or be condemned to obscurity. MAP OF PRE-1900 COMPOSERS GREAT BRITAIN Purcell Handel (German) Clementi (Italian) RUSSIA Tchaikovsky HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE Pachelbel JS Bach CPE Bach Telemann HABSBURG PRUSSIAN AUSTRIA GERMANY Haydn Gluck Mozart Beethoven Schubert Brahms Listz Mendelsohn Straus I Schumann Strauss II Wagner FRANCE Charpentier Rameau Chopin (Polish) Bizet Dilibes IBERIA Scarlatti (Italian) ITALY Corelli Boccherini Vivaldi Albinoni Paganini Rossini Verdi Puccini Prussia and Austria were only formally separated in the mid 19th Century This was set to change as empires crumbled and nationalist fervour swept across Europe. Many musicians began to incorporate the musical heritage of their homeland instead of composing in the dominant pan-European style.

40 Early Nationalist Composers
Edvard GRIEG Nikolai RIMSKY-KORSAKOV (1843 – 1907) (1844 – 1908) A brilliant neo-classic composer and pianist whose works are often performed today. He often collaborated with his Norwegian literary contemporaries. Grieg is the only famous composer that Norway ever produced. The most famous of the Tsarist Russian nationalist composers (a.k.a. the Five) but he was not well known outside of Russia. He worked on folk songs and wrote operas based on Russian myths and stories. Piano Concerto in A minor In the Hall of the Mountain King Morning Mood Flight of the Bumble Bee Violin Version Both these two famous segments are from his Peer Gynt Suite No. 1 A wonderful performance by Ji-Hae Park, in a medley including other fast pieces.

41 Sergei Vasilievich RACHMANINOFF
The most well known of the post-romantic composers. He is often also classified as the last romantic composer but his fiery and complex compositions clearly put him in the modern era. One of the trademarks of Rachmaninoff’s compositions is that his instruments talk to each other, i.e. take turns carrying the main melody. Rachmaninoff was already a budding composer in Russia but had to leave Russia because of the communist revolution at the age of 44. This might have been the luckiest thing to happen to him for he eventually made his way to the U.S. and achieved world fame. (1873 – 1943) I picked a version of Rachmaninoff playing the concerto itself. Its old, so the fidelity is only so so. Italian Polka Prelude in G Minor Vocalise Piano Concerto No.2, 1st mvt Piano Concerto No.2, 3rd mvt Symphony No.2, end of 3rd mvt Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini, variation 18 Vocalise was originally written as a song. It is unusual as it has no lyrics and is to be sung with any single vowel of the singer’s choosing. Soprano Version # This longer performance will show the link to Paganini’s Caprice No.24 clearly. Rhapsody: an irregular and improvised piece of music All 24 variations #

42 Other Composers that went to America
Pronounced as Vo-sjak. Gustav MAHLER Antonin DVORAK (1860 – 1911) (1841 – 1904) A leading post-romantic German composer conductor. While talented, he was constrained by anti-Semitic forces and he had to move to America. His works only became popular after a post WWII revival. Dvorak was a Nationalist neo-Classical composer who would draw inspiration from Czech and Slavic folk music. When he was in his 50s he lived in America where he championed the idea of developing African American & Native Indian music. Symphony No.5, Adagietto Songs My Mother Taught me Humoresque New World Symphony 2nd movement 4th movement Adagio is a slow piece of music while an Adagietto is an Adagio that is to be played light-heartedly.

A meticulous composer and orchestrator who had to live in Debussy’s shadow until the latter’s death. Ravel was a more flexible composer and he did not compose all his works in the impressionist style. Bolero (1862 – 1918) (1875 – 1937) A French composer who made heavy use of non-traditional scales and chords. He disliked the term impressionist music although his music is often paired with Monet paintings today. He simply said his music was different. THE STYLE OF IMPRESSIONIST MUSIC Surreal – in contrast to Romantic Music which was about raw emotion, Impressionist Music imparted more of an abstract sense of mood. Static – their music does not seem to have a beginning or an end, and it does not appear to move forward. In many cases impressionist use of musical dissonance goes way over the top and is simply too chaotic for novices to appreciate. Try [Ravel’s Scarbo] or [Debussy’s Preludes Book 1] and you’ll see what I mean. Arabesque Clair de Lune This means moonlight: Unlike in the case with Beethoven’s Moonlight Sonata, it was Debussy’s intention to portray the moonlight, shining over a body of water.

44 the MODERN Composers (Late)
After WWII, we see the final end of centuries of Germanic domination of the musical world. We also see the rise of the Russian communist composers as the advent of the radio, TV and vinyl records directed the focus of Western musicians to vocalist music. Rodrigo 1999 1901 Barber 1981 1910 Khachaturian 1978 1903 Shostakovich 1975 1905 Art Deco Stravinsky 1971 1881 Vaughan Williams 1958 1872 Sibelius 1957 1865 Prokofiev 1953 1891 R Strauss 1949 1865 Gershwin 1937 1898 1850 1900 1950 2000 MUSIC Classical Romantic Modern Contemporary ART Romanticism Impressionism Avant Garde Contemporary

45 the Late MODERN Composers
Igor STRAVINSKY Richard STRAUSS George GERSHWIN (1882 – 1971) (1864 – 1949) (1898 – 1937) A student of Rimsky-Korsakov who lived in exile in France. He was the only non-communist Russian composer of the Cold War era. Stravinsky started out as a neo-classicist but moved on to atonal music in the 1950s. The last of the illustrious German/Austrian musicians. Some still condemn him for his supposed Nazi ties, but truth be told he was already 75 when WWII started. The first in a long lineage of Jewish musicians that would come to dominate American classical music. He can be said to be the first composer of music with an American flavour. Also Sprach Zarathustra Rhapsody in Blue The Firebird # The start of this piece based on Nietzsche’s book of the same name is the theme music for 2001 A Space Odyssey. A bit jazzy and reminiscent of the big band Swing Era as the ‘Blue’ implies, but a classic nonetheless.

the Late Nationalists Jean SIBELIUS Ralph VAUGHAN WILLIAMS Vaughan is part of his surname, and is not his first name. (1865 – 1957) (1872 – 1958) One of the most popular composers of the 20th century. He was found of basing his music on the Finnish landscape and seasons. Sibelius’ birthday is a national holiday in Finland. A British composer who often used English folk tunes into his works. Unlike most composers of the time he also composed religious music and many of his songs are part of the English Hymnal. Finlandia Fantasia on Greensleeves Finlandia is what is known as a symphonic poem, a single movement symphony intended to invoke images and moods to the listener. The popular segment starts at time index 3:34. The hymn Be Still My Soul is based on the segment starting at time index 6:10 Greensleeves is a beautiful Elizabethan era folk ballad

47 the Cold War Soviets Sergei PROKOVIEF Dimitri SHOSTAKOVICH
Aram KHACHATURIAN (1891 – 1953) (1906 – 1975) (1903 – 1978) The most famous of the Soviet Titans. He enigmatically decided to return to communist Russia after enjoying life in the West. He was subject to a Stalinist purge which put an end to his musical career. A complex neo-classicist Soviet pianist and composer who ran afoul of the communist party and was denounced twice. Fortunately, he lived long enough to be rehabilitated by the party. A post-romantic Armenian conductor and composer best known for his ballet music. He toed the Communist party line and was well rewarded. Gayane Sabre Dance Romeo and Juliet, Dance of the Knights Peter and the Wolf March Romance, from the Gadfly Suite # Gayane is one of his famous ballets, the other is Spartacus. Composed for a Soviet-era movie of the same name. It is supposedly inspired by Massenet’s Meditation. A masterpiece for Children. Each animal is portrayed by a different instrument.

48 the Last of the Classical Composers
Samuel BARBER Joaquin RODRIGO (1910 – 1981) (1901 – 1999) The most celebrated American classical composers of the 20th century. He was arguably the world’s last true classical composer. A Spanish composer who was blind and composed in Braille. Because of his Hispanic heritage, he often composed works for the guitar. Adagio for Strings Agnus Dei Concierto de Aranjuez, 2nd movement # Aranjuez is a town south of Madrid. It is also when Rodrigo is buried. Rodrigo was actually knighted Marquis of Aranjuez because of this music he wrote. Two versions of his magnum opus. Agnus Dei is the choral version and is so touching that it is known to brings its audience to tears during live performances.

49 Bonus Section: CONTEMPORARY Orchestral Music
One day in the future, historians will give this period we live in its proper name, but for now we refer to its as Contemporary. Perhaps it will be called the Film era. Today, instrumental music has been on the decline for close to a century but it is far from dead. New compositions are mostly commissioned as the scores of epic movie projects. Surprisingly, the most memorable of these are not written for artistic films; the best contemporary orchestral music is typically associated with science fiction or fantasy movies. Contemporary Art The Gherkin 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 MUSIC Classical Romantic Modern Contemporary ART Romanticism Impressionism Avant Garde Contemporary

50 The MOVIE Scoring Vanguard
In the post-war days as far as movie-making was concerned, there was Hollywood, and then there was Cinecitta; so the popular post-war composers were either Italian or American. Nino ROTA Leonard ROSENMAN Jerry GOLDSMITH Ennio MORRICONE (1911 – 1979) (1924 – 2008) (1929 – 2004 ) (1928 – ) Romeo and Juliet Suite The Godfather Love Theme # The Voyage Home First Contact Cinema Paradiso The Mission, inc Gabriel’s Oboe # If I had room I would have included Elmer Bernstein

51 John Towner WILLIAMS The most popular composer of film scores in our time and conductor of the Boston Pops Orchestra for 13 years. Over six decades of composing, he has won 6 academy awards and was nominated for an additional 44. 4 of his albums actually got into the U.S. Billboard 100 in a time dominated by pop and rock & roll. Williams wrote the music for every Spielberg movie except the Colour Purple. Besides those linked below, his hits include: Jaws, E.T., Close Encounters, Raiders of the Lost Ark, Memoirs of a Geisha, Saving Private Ryan, Tintin, War Horse, Book Thief. (1932 – ) Superman Overture # Jurassic Park # Hedwig’s Theme # Star Wars, Throne Room Medley # Star Wars, Leia’s Theme and Imperial March # Schindler’s List There is a more formal composition called the Harry Potter Symphonic Suite but I prefer this version. This is definitely the most traditionally classical of all his compositions

52 CONTEMPORARY Composers of Today
Odd man out, he’s Australian With the decline of European film industry, popular classical composers today are primarily North American. Stu PHILLIPS Howard SHORE James HORNER Paul TERRACINI (1929 – ) (1946 – ) (1953 – ) (1957 – ) Battlestar Galactica (1978) Rohan and Gondor # The Shire Wrath of Kahn Classical Destinations Titanic Suite Cocoon # Played by the Golden Flute himself, James Galway My favourite contemporary work. A romantic composition which conjures up images of the Age of Sail, adventure and exploration on the high seas. If I had room I would have included Bill Conti

53 10 NAMES you can’t go wrong with when buying classical music
Itzhak PERLMAN Carlos KLEIBER Vladimir ASHKENAZY Wilhelm KLEMPFF Zubin MEHTA Herbert von KARAJAN Eugene ORMANDY Leonard BERNSTEIN Arthur RUBENSTEIN Vladimir HOROWITZ B/W photo = deceased

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