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Classifying Organisms

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1 Classifying Organisms

2 Classification- putting things into groups based on shared characteristics
There have been many different ideas about how to classify living things. Aristotle placed all organisms into 2 large groups- plants and animals

3 Linnaeus’ System Linnaeus founded modern taxonomy.
Taxonomy- the science of describing , classifying , and naming living things Based on 7 hierarchical categories Simplified the naming of living things by giving each species a two-part specific name “Binomial nomenclature”

4 Binomial Nomenclature
Genus Species Felis domesticus In a scientific name, the first part of the name is the organism’s genus. Similar species are grouped into one genus. Ex: Felis The second part of the name identifies the species- a group of organisms that have similar traits and are able to produce fertile offspring.

5 Binomial Nomenclature
Panthera tigris Panthera leo

6 Classification Today Taxonomists use an eight-level system to classify living things based on shared characteristics. The more characteristics the organisms share, the more closely related the organisms may be.

7 Levels Of Classification
Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species


9 DOMAINS Every living thing is classified into one of the 3 Domains:
Archea Bacteria Eukarya

10 DOMAIN 1: ARCHAEA ARCHAEBACTERIA Unicellular prokaryotes
Often live in harsh environments some produce food by chemosynthesis (energy obtained from places other than the sun)

11 DOMAIN 2: BACTERIA Unicellular prokaryotes
Have a Cell wall and membrane Most abundant organisms

Complex cells; nuclei and organelles in cells Some are unicellular Some are multicellular The domain Eukarya is divided into 4 Kingdoms: Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia

13 Eukarya: Protista One celled or Multicellular organisms that can either be plant-like, animal like, or both Algae, Amoebas, Paramecium , Euglena

14 Eukarya: Fungi Multicellular Cell wall Does not perform photosynthesis
Absorbs nutrients Reproduce using spores.

15 Eukarya: Plantae Cell wall Perform photosynthesis
Vascular vs. nonvascular Flowering vs. nonflowering

16 Eukarya: Animalia Multi-cellular organisms that lack cell walls
Range from simple to complex Invertebrates- Do not have a backbone Worms Sponges Jelly Fish Mollusks Insects Vertebrates – Have a backbone Fish Amphibians Reptiles Birds Mammals


18 Classification Tools

19 Dichotomous Key A series of descriptions arranged in pairs that can be used to identify an unknown organism The chosen descriptions leads to another pair of descriptions or to the identification of the organism

20 Dichotomous Key

21 Cladogram A branched diagram that shows the relationships among organisms New characteristics appear before each branch


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