Earthquakes Focus is the point within the Earth where the earthquake starts. Epicenter is the location on the surface directly above the focus. Focus and Epicenter Faults are fractures in Earth where movement has occurred. Faults
The Focus and Epicenter of an Earthquake: The point within the Earth where faulting begins is the focus. The point directly above the focus on the surface is the epicenter.
Cause of Earthquakes An aftershock is a small earthquake that follows the main earthquake. A foreshock is a small earthquake that often happens before a major earthquake. Aftershocks and Foreshocks
Building collapse Fire Tsunami Deaths landslides
8.3 Destruction from Earthquakes With many earthquakes, the greatest damage to structures is from landslides or the sinking of the ground triggered by vibrations. Landslides
Fire In the San Francisco earthquake of 1906, most of the destruction was caused by fires that started when gas and electrical lines were cut.
Tsunamis 8.3 Destruction from Earthquakes is a tidal wave or series of large waves caused by an earthquake under the ocean where a slab of the ocean floor is displaced vertically along a fault. A tsunami also can occur when the vibration of an earthquake sets an underwater landslide into motion. Tsunami is the Japanese word for “seismic sea wave.”
Seismic waves are waves of energy that travel through the Earth.waves Two types: 1. Body waves P and S 2. Surface waves R and L
P or primary waves Are the fastest waves. They travel through solids, liquids, and gases. The land shakes in the same direction as the wave. S or secondary waves Are slower than P waves. They only travel through solids. They move the land perpendicular to the wave.
Surface Waves: Especially damaging to buildings. They are slower than body waves. R or Rayleigh waves move in a rolling pattern. L or Love waves move in a side-to-side pattern.
Faults are fractures in Earth where movement has occurred.