CategoryDefinition Pre-hepatic Pathology occurs prior to the liver HepaticPathology located within the liver Post- hepatic Pathology located after the conjugation of bilirubin in the liver What causes jaundice?
Neonatal jaundice Yellowish staining of the skin and whites of the newborn's eyes (sclerae) by pigment of bile (bilirubin) Breakdown of red blood cells (which release bilirubin into the blood) and immaturity of the newborn's liver (which cannot effectively metabolize bilirubin and prepare it for excretion into urine) Normal neonatal jaundice appears between the 2nd and 5th days of life and clears with time Kernicterus – brain damage - lifelong disability
What problems does jaundice cause? Skin and sclerae - yellow Stool - light colour, clay coloured Dark urine Pain in abdomen Itching Trouble with sleeping Fatigue Swelling Ascites Mental confusion Coma Bleeding
Which diseases cause jaundice? Increased production of bilirubin Acute liver inflammation Infiltrative liver diseases Bile duct inflammation Blockage of bile ducts Drugs Genetic disorders Developmental abnormalities of bile ducts Jaundice of pregnancy
Laboratory Tests Bilirubin level in serum (total and direct) Aminotransferase Alkaline phosphatase U/A for bilirubin and urobilogen Complete blood count Prothrombin time Other laboratory tests pertinent to history Coombs test Electrophoresis of hemoglobin Viral hepatitis panel
Treatment Treatment requires a precise diagnosis of the specific cause and should be directed to the specific problem