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Vitamins Kaplan University Theresa L. Gerlach March 1, 2015.

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Presentation on theme: "Vitamins Kaplan University Theresa L. Gerlach March 1, 2015."— Presentation transcript:

1 Vitamins Kaplan University Theresa L. Gerlach March 1, 2015

2 What are Vitamins? Vitamins are organic components in food that are needed in very small amounts for growth and for maintaining good health. The vitamins include vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin A, and vitamin K, or the fat-soluble vitamins, and folate (folic acid), vitamin B 12, biotin, vitamin B 6, niacin, thiamin, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, and vitamin C (ascorbic acid), or the water- soluble vitamins.(Schlenker, E)

3 Classification of a Vitamin  To be classified as a vitamin, a compound has to meet several criteria:  It must be an organic dietary substance that is not energy producing, as are carbohydrate, fat, or proteins.  It is needed in very small quantities to perform a particular metabolic function and prevent an associated deficiency disease.  The body cannot manufacture it, so it must be supplied in foods.  These principles form the basics for establishing that a vitamin is essential.  (Schlenker, E)

4 Benefits of Vitamins  The health benefits of vitamins include their ability to prevent and treat various diseases including heart problems, high cholesterol levels, eye disorders, and skin disorders. Most vitamins also facilitate many of the body’s mechanisms and perform functions which are not performed by any other nutrients. Vitamins also work together in carrying out body functions. (Schlenker, E)

5 Fat and Water Soluble Vitamins  As vitamins were discovered, they were grouped according to their solubility in fat or water. (Schlenker, E )  The Fat-Soluble Vitamins are A, D, E, and K. They are closely associated with body lipids and easily stored. Their functions are usually related to structural activities with proteins.  The Water-Soluble Vitamins are Vitamin C and the B-complex family. These vitamins are more easily absorbed and transported, but cannot be stored except through tissue saturation. (Schlenker, E)

6 Fat- Soluble Vitamins  Vitamin A is a very important nutrient. Retinal and retinol are referred to as preformed Vitamin A. It helps in increasing the body’s immunity to fight infections and keeps your eyes and skin moist.  Vitamin D is required for the regulation of the minerals calcium and phosphorus found in the body. It also plays an important role in maintaining proper bone structure.  Vitamin E is an important vitamin required for the proper function of many organs in the body. It is also an antioxidant. This means it helps to slow down processes that damage cells.  Vitamin K is an essential vitamin that is needed by the body for blood clotting and other important processes. (Schlenker, E)

7 Water Soluble Vitamins Vitamin C  Vitamin C or Ascorbic Acid is a nutrient that is vital to all creatures.  Not only is vitamin C a well-known component of your immune system, it is also necessary for collagen, the main structural protein found in connective tissue.  Vitamin C is a powerful and effective antioxidant that protects our bodies from free radicals that cause oxidative stress.  Along with its immune functions that fight against bacteria, viruses, and infection, vitamin C also serves as an effective antihistamine that will lessen the unpleasant effects of the common cold, including inflammation, stuffy nose and aches. (Schlenker, E)

8 Water Soluble Vitamins B-complex  Vitamin B1 or Thiamine can prevent heart diseases, and indigestion, while boosting the body’s metabolism, blood circulation, and brain development.  Vitamin B2 or Riboflavin helps to treat cataracts, skin disorders, and anemia, while also improving the body’s metabolic activity, immunity, and nervous system.  Vitamin B3 or Niacin can reduce weakness, indigestion, skin disorders, migraines, heart disorders, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, diabetes, and diarrhea. (Schlenker, E)

9 Vitamin B-Complex (continued)  Vitamin B5 or Pantothenic Acid can relieve stress, arthritis, various infections, skin disorders, greying of the hair, and high cholesterol.  Vitamin B6 or Pyridoxamine is useful in the treatment of diabetes, piles, convulsions, excessive menstrual bleeding, stress, insomnia, morning sickness, and travel sickness.  Vitamin B7 or Biotin can treat skin disorders, improve the body’s metabolism, and boost hair care.  (Schlenker, E)

10 Vitamin B Complex (continued)  Vitamin B9 or Folic Acid is very powerful against anemia, indigestion, abnormal brain growth, skin disorders, and gout, while increasing red blood cell formation.  Vitamin B12 or Cyanocobalamin can reduce symptoms and side effects of anemia, smoking, pregnancy, liver disorders, kidney disorders, and mouth ulcers. When combined with adequate amounts of B6 and folic acid, B12 is essential in defending against various heart conditions, including strokes.  (Schlenker, E )

11 Vitamin Overdose  Most people don't realize there's no real advantage to taking more than the recommended amounts of vitamins and minerals, and they don't recognize there may be disadvantages. If you're taking a supplement, stick to one that's no more than the daily value.  Talk with your doctor about any supplements you're taking, including vitamins and minerals, and the dose you're taking, too. That way, your doctor can help you keep doses in a safe range.  If you're taking a basic multivitamin, there's no need to fear taking too much. (Dywer RD, J)

12 Conclusion  Vitamins are beneficial and are able to help us in many ways. It is important to educate ourselves with vitamins and the need for them along with dosages, etc. We should always talk with our physician regarding any vitamins. At times a vitamin will interfere with other vitamins or medications. If we take extra vitamins or minerals, this may cause an overdose with side affects. Food is the best source of nutrients and we should strive to make this a healthy choice as our way of receiving our daily nutrition.  The Mayo Clinic, Web MD and Organic health benefits websites are great for educated information and to learn more about the benefits, foods to eat, deficiency, and side effects of vitamins.

13 References     William Essentials of Nutrition and Diet Therapy (Schlenker,E,Roth, S)

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