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Page 1 Updated by: Yap Boon Thiam Technical Engineer Date: 15/5/2012.

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Presentation on theme: "Page 1 Updated by: Yap Boon Thiam Technical Engineer Date: 15/5/2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 Page 1 Updated by: Yap Boon Thiam Technical Engineer Email: Date: 15/5/2012

2 Page 2 1.Ozone Layers 2.Ozone Depletion 3.List of Refrigerants 4.Montreal Protocol 5.Kyoto Protocol 6.R22 Alternatives Contents

3 Page 3 OZONE LAYER Ozone (O3 ) is a gas composed of three oxygen atoms. 90% of the ozone is found in the upper atmosphere, 10-50km above earth surface (stratosphere). The ozone layer absorbs most of the harmful ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation from the sun. CFCs and HCFCs link to ozone layer depletion. If the ozone layer depletes, more harmful UV-B radiation will reach the earth through the damaged ozone layer. Ecological damages and health risk.

4 Page 4 OZONE LAYER Source:

5 Page 5 OZONE DEPLETION Source: Causes:

6 Page 6 In 1985, British scientists discovered a large thinning in the ozone layer over the Antarctic continent. In September 1998, the Antarctic ozone hole reached a record size of 25 million km 2,or two and half times the size of Europe. UV-B levels are now about 7% higher than thirty years ago.(1970s) UV-B radiation has increased dramatically nearer the poles, 22% higher in the Arctic and 130% higher in the Antarctic relative to values in the 1970s. OZONE DEPLETION Source: American Chemical Society [August 29, 2011]


8 Page 8 LIST OF REFRIGERANT TypeASHRAE No. Chemical NameMolecular Formula ODPGWP CFCR-12Dichlorodifluoro- methane CCl 2 F 2 1.02,400 HCFCR-22Chlorofdiluoro- methane CHClF 2 0.051,700 HFCR-32DifluoromethaneCH 2 F 2 0650 R-134aTetrafluoroethaneC2H2F4C2H2F4 01,300 Refrigerant Azeotropic Mixtures R-407CR32+R125+R134a (23%+25%+52%) 23% CH 2 F 2 25 % C 2 HF 5 52% C 2 H 2 F 4 01,610 R-410AR32 + R125 (50% + 50%) 50% CH 2 F 2 01,725 Natural Refrigerant R-717AmmoniaNH 3 00 R-744Carbon DioxideCO 2 01 Source:

9 Page 9 OZONE DEPLETION POTENTIAL (ODP) GLOBAL WARMING POTENTIAL (GWP) TOTAL EQUIVALENT WARMING IMPACT (TEWI) Based on R12 GWP= 1 0 500 1000 1500 R22R134aR407cR410aR717 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 R22R134aR407cR410aR717 Based on R12 ODP= 1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 R22R134aR407cR410aR717 LIST OF REFRIGERANT


11 Page 11 1.Developed under the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in 1987. 2.Objective is to protect the Ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous Ozone depletion substances. 3.Requirement to phase out CFCs in year 1996 and HCFCs in year 2030. 4.In Malaysia, CFCs total phase out in year 2010. HCFCs total phase out in year 2040. MONTREAL PROTOCOL


13 Page 13 World Top Ten GHGs Emitters (2010) KYOTO PROTOCOL Source: BP, Statistical Review of World Energy (London: June 2011)

14 Page 14 To phase out R22, alternatives to R22 should be chosen carefully though overall evaluations: 1.Energy efficiency 2.Total emission 3.Safety 4.Economic aspects There are several candidates: 1.HFC32 : Intermediate GWP and efficient 2.Propane(R290): Natural and efficiency but highly flammable 3.CO2: Natural but poor in efficiency 4.HFC410A: High GWP but applications are widely commercialized In comprehensive points of view, R32 is recommended as best alternative to new split air conditioners. R22 ALTERNATIVES


16 Page 16 R22 ALTERNATIVES Energy Efficiency

17 Page 17 R22 ALTERNATIVES Total Emissions

18 Page 18 R22 ALTERNATIVES Safety

19 Page 19 R22 ALTERNATIVES Safety

20 Page 20 R22 ALTERNATIVES Cost

21 Page 21 R22 ALTERNATIVES Summary

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