Presentation on theme: "Topic 1.1 Matter & Change EI: physical and chemical properties depend on the ways in which different atoms combine. NOS: Making quantitative measurements."— Presentation transcript:
1 Topic 1.1 Matter & ChangeEI: physical and chemical properties depend on the ways in which different atoms combine.NOS: Making quantitative measurements with replicates to ensure reliability – definite and multiple proportions (3.1)
2 What is Matter? What is Matter? Anything that takes up space and has mass.Made up of particles (atoms, molecules, ions)Particles are in constant motion
3 Distance between particles Arrangement of particles A 2. States of MatterStateShapeVolumeDistance between particlesArrangement of particlesSolid (S)Fixed shapeFixed volumeClose togetherregularLiquid (l)No fixed shapeFixed volumeClose, but farther than solidsrandomGas or Vapor (g)No fixed shapeNot fixedFar apartrandom
7 U1: Properties of Matter Physical propertyA characteristic of a substance that can be measured or observed without changing the substance’s compositionChemical propertyThe ability of a substance to undergo a chemical reaction to form new substances
8 Examples of Physical Properties Examples of Chemical Properties U1. Properties of MatterExamples ofPhysical PropertiesColorSolubility (Dissolving)OdorHardnessDensityMelting PointBoiling PointState of matterThermal capacityMassExamples ofChemical PropertiesReactivity with oxygenReactivity with acidsReactivity with basesReactivity with other elementsSodium and Chlorine Reaction
9 U1. Properties of MatterSodium is a silver metal at room conditions; combines with chlorine to make table salt; reacts with water to form hydrogen; has a density of 0.93 g/cm3; oxidizes rapidly in air, melts at 97.8oC.Using the above description, list the physical properties of sodiumUsing the above description, list the chemical properties of sodium
10 U1. Properties of MatterSodium is a silver metal at room conditions; combines with chlorine to make table salt; reacts with water to form hydrogen; has a density of 0.93 g/cm3; oxidizes rapidly in air, melts at 97.8oC.Using the above description, list the physical properties of sodiumUsing the above description, list the chemical properties of sodium
11 U1. Changes of Matter Physical change An alteration of matter that does not change the chemical composition of the material.
12 U1. Changes of Matter . Chemical change Results in a change in the chemical composition of the substance(s). This is called a reaction.
13 U1. Changes of Matter Examples of Physical Changes Examples of Freezing or meltingBoiling or condensingCuttingGrindingBendingBlendingDissolvingExamples ofChemical ChangesCombustion (burning)Reacts with an acidReacts with a baseRustingOxidizingDecomposingDigesting
14 U1. Changes of Matter Copy the statement on your paper and write P for physical or C for chemical Bending of a piece of wireBurning of coalCooking a steakCutting grassSodium reacts with water6. Iron rusts7. Silicon is insoluble in water8. Ice melts9. Neon boils at -2460C10. Nitric Acid reacts with Copper
15 U2. Distinguishing Compounds and Mixtures Elements are composed of just one type of atom. They cannot be separated into simpler substances using chemical means.Stop Here do to the physical/chemical lab 2014
16 U2. Distinguishing Compounds and Mixtures Compounds are substances composed of two or more different kinds of atoms that have combined chemically. They can be separated by chemical means.Stop Here do to the physical/chemical lab 2014
17 U2. Distinguishing Compounds and Mixtures Mixtures are a physical blend of two or more substances. They can be separated by physical means.Stop Here do to the physical/chemical lab 2014
18 U2. Distinguish compounds and mixtures ElementsRepresented by a chemical symbol (see Periodic Table)Gold (Au), Iron (Fe), Oxygen (O or O2)Start here after physical/chemical change lab
19 U2. Distinguish compounds and mixtures A fixed ratio of elements, shown using element symbols and a number
20 U2. Distinguish compounds and mixtures Examples:Water, H2O, contains 2 atoms of hydrogen (H) and one atom of oxygen(O).Salt, NaCl, contains one atom of sodium (Na) for each atom of chlorine (Cl).
21 U3. Mixtures Mixtures: composition is not fixed Homogeneous mixture- has uniform composition and properties, also called solutions.Ex: pure air, pure water, syrup
22 U3. MixturesMixtures:Heterogeneous mixture – non-uniform composition, properties are not the same, able to see the separate componentsEx: soup, concrete, granite
23 Ways to separate mixtures: U3. MixturesWays to separate mixtures:Heterogeneous: sieving, tweezers, skimmingHomogeneous: distillation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, evaporation
24 Distinguish between elements, compounds, and mixtures Copy the item and indicate if it is an element, compound or mixture6. Silver7. Orange juice8. Neon9. Sugar (C6H12O6)10. Lake waterBloodHydrogenBrass (copper and zinc)Ice (H2O)Motor oilPractice Problems: pg. 4014-18
25 A& S. 1: Chemical Reactions In a chemical reaction, one or more substances change into new substances by rearranging the atomsReactants Products
26 A& S. 1: Chemical Reactions Reactants ProductsReactants: the substances that are combined togetherProducts: the substances that are formed after the reactants are combined together.
27 A& S. 1: Chemical Reactions Chemical Reaction Example:Reactants ProductsCopper+ nitric acid copper(II) nitrate+ nitrogen dioxide+waterCu + HNO3 Cu(NO3)2 + NO2 + H2O
29 A&S 1. Chemical Reactions A chemical reaction has occurred if:Heat is absorbed or given off (change in temperature)Change in color or odorProduction of a gas or solidNot easily reversible
30 A&S 1. Chemical Reactions Law of Conservation of MassDuring any chemical reaction, mass is neither created nor destroyed, it is conserved.The mass of the products will always equal the mass of the reactants.The mass of each element is also unchanged.
31 A&S 1. Chemical Reactions Law of Conservation of MassIn a reaction where hydrogen reacted with oxygen to produce water, if 4.5 g of hydrogen and 34 g of oxygen were used, how many grams of water were produced?Hydrogen + oxygen = water= 38.5 g water